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Martin Brüggenwirth and Moritz Knoche

Rain cracking is a limitation in sweet cherry production almost wherever this high-value crop is grown ( Christensen, 1996 ). Fruit cracking in many species, including grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) and sweet cherry, is thought to be related to water

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Mark E. Herrington, Craig Hardner, Malcolm Wegener, Louella L. Woolcock, and Mark J. Dieters

form of “water soaking,” etching, and cracking to the stem end (neck, shoulder), body, and tip of affected fruits ( Fig. 1 ). “Delayed rain damage,” which requires further investigation, includes a higher than expected proportion of deformed fruit

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Samuel F. Hutton, John W. Scott, and Joshua H. Freeman

been tested repeatedly in replicated yield trials, where it has consistently demonstrated high yield potential ( Table 1 ; S.F. Hutton, unpublished data). The fruit of ‘Fla. 8970’ have excellent marketability and are highly resistant to cracking and

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Holger Weichert, Carina von Jagemann, Stefanie Peschel, Moritz Knoche, Dieter Neumann, and Wilfried Erfurth

Water uptake through the exocarp of intact sweet cherry [Prunus avium (L.)] fruit was determined gravimetrically in an immersion assay (25 °C). Fruit with sealed pedicel/fruit juncture were incubated in water during the first interval (0 to 0.75 hour) and in 10 mm salt solutions of selected cations during the second (0.75 to 1.5 hours) and third interval (1.5 to 2.25 hours) of an experiment. Rates of water uptake (F) were calculated for first, second and third intervals (FI, FII and FIII, respectively) and salt effects indexed by the ratios FII/FI and FIII/FI. AgNO3 (FII/FI = 0.65), NaCl (0.70), BaCl2 (0.67), CdCl2 (0.69), CuCl2 (0.42), HgCl2 (0.58), and SrCl2 (0.69), and the salts of trivalent cations AlCl3 (0.50), EuCl3 (0.58), and FeCl3 (0.49), significantly decreased water uptake into mature `Sam' fruit as compared to the water control (0.87). KCl (0.82), NH4Cl (0.85), CaCl2 (0.75), MgCl2 (0.88), MnCl2 (0.81), and ZnCl2 (0.72) had no effect, LiCl (1.00) increased uptake. Similar data were obtained for FIII/FI. The effect of FeCl3 on water uptake was independent of the presence of CaCl2, AlCl3, or CuCl2, as sequential or simultaneous treatment with these salts reduced water uptake to the same extent as with FeCl3 alone. Increasing FeCl3 concentration up to 1 mm decreased uptake, higher concentrations had no further effect. FeCl3 and CaCl2 to a smaller extent decreased water uptake in developing `Regina' sweet cherry fruit (55 to 91 days after full bloom). FeCl3 had no significant effect on water uptake along the pedicel/fruit juncture, but markedly reduced uptake through the exocarp of all cultivars investigated (`Burlat', `Early Rivers', `Hedelfinger', `Knauffs', `Regina', `Sam', `Summit', and `Van'). Effects of CaCl2 on water uptake were limited to `Burlat', `Early Rivers', and `Hedelfinger'. CaCl2 and FeCl3 both decreased fruit cracking, but FeCl3 was more effective. The mode of action of mineral salts in decreasing water uptake and fruit cracking and their potential for field use are discussed.

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Bishnu P. Khanal and Moritz Knoche

cracks, even in the absence of any russeting ( Curry, 2012 ; Faust and Shear, 1972b ; Maguire et al., 1999 ; Roy et al., 1999 ). Whether these cracks are mechanically relevant in the development of fruit surface disorders is not yet known. These

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J.W. Scott, J.B. Jones, G.C. Somodi, D.O. Chellemi, and S.M. Olson

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Marco Beyer, Stefanie Peschel, Moritz Knoche, and Manfred Knörgen

Water uptake in different regions of the sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. cv. Sam) was investigated following selective application of silicone sealant to the pedicel end, pedicel cavity, pedicel/fruit juncture, or stylar scar of detached fruit. The time course of water uptake was monitored gravimetrically during a 3-hour incubation period in deionized water (20 °C). Sealing the pedicel end and/or pedicel/fruit juncture significantly reduced rates and total amount (3 hours) of water uptake, but sealing the stylar scar had no effect. The amount of water penetrating via the pedicel/fruit juncture increased between 50 and 85 days after full bloom. During the same period the maximum force required to detach pedicels from fruit (fruit removal force) fell from 5.2 ± 0.5 to 2.1 ± 0.2 N. The amount of water penetrating via the pedicel/fruit juncture and the fruit removal force were negatively related. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of mature fruit incubated in D2O indicated that D2O accumulated in the pedicel cavity region and the pedicel. Our data suggest that the pedicel end and pedicel/fruit juncture, but not the stylar scar, are regions of preferential water uptake in detached fruit. Chemical name used: deuterium oxide (D2O).

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Stefanie Peschel and Moritz Knoche

Rain-induced cracking is an important limitation in sweet cherry production worldwide ( Christensen, 1996 ). Cracking susceptibility differs among cultivars. Cracking is thought to be related to water uptake into the fruit, but the mechanistic basis

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Moritz Knoche and Stefanie Peschel

strain of the CM is closely and positively related to frequency and severity of microscopic cracks in the CM ( Knoche and Peschel, 2006 ). Cracks impair the barrier function of the CM and serve as entry ports for fruit rot pathogens, including Botrytis