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Manish K. Bansal, George E. Boyhan, and Daniel D. MacLean

, where onions can be stored under refrigeration and controlled-atmosphere storage ( Maw et al., 1997b ). For successful long-term storage of short-day onions, they must be kept in a dormant state, which can be achieved with controlled-atmosphere storage

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James P. Mattheis

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism of apples (watercore, internal breakdown, low temperature and carbon dioxide injuries) Bot. Rev. 35 168 194 Kupferman, E. 2003 Controlled atmosphere storage of apples and pears Acta Hort

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Philip E. Hammer, S.F. Yang, M.S. Reid, and J.J. Marois

The effectiveness of fungistatic atmospheres for postharvest control of Botrytis cinerea Pers. infections on cut rose flowers (Rosa hybrids L.) was investigated. Storing cut `Sonia', `Royalty', and `Gold Rush' roses at 2.5C with 10% CO2 for 5 days, followed by 2 days of cold storage in air, reduced the number of B. cinerea lesions that developed on inoculated and noninoculated flower petals by 77% and 82%, respectively, compared to cold storage for 7 days in air. Higher CO2 concentrations and longer CO2 treatment times reduced disease severity further, but resulted in unacceptable leaf discoloration on some cultivars. No deleterious effects of CO2-enriched storage atmospheres on flower quality, weight gain, or vase life were observed. Storage at 2.5C for 7 days in 2 μl SO2/liter reduced B. cinerea infections on inoculated and noninoculated flowers by 53% and 43%, respectively. No deleterious effects on flower quality, weight gain, or vase life were observed. Higher SO2 levels reduced disease severity further, but caused bleaching of the petal margins and necrosis around leaf wounds.

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Deirdre M. Holcroft, Maria I. Gil, and Adel A. Kader

`Wonderful' Pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) were placed in jars ventilated continuously with air or air enriched with 10 or 20 kPa CO2 at 10 °C for 6 weeks. Samples were taken initially and after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks, and postharvest quality attributes were measured. The arils of the pomegranates stored in air were deeper red than the initial controls and than those stored in CO2-enriched atmospheres. This increased color was associated with increased anthocyanin concentration. Arils from fruit stored in air enriched with 10 kPa CO2 had a lower anthocyanin concentration than air-stored fruit, and atmospheres enriched with 20 kPa CO2 had even lower levels, possibly from suppressed anthocyanin biosynthesis. Anthocyanin concentration correlated well with the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase but not with glucosyltransferase activity. Moderate CO2 atmospheres (10 kPa) prolong the storage life and maintain quality of pomegranates, including adequate red color intensity of the arils.

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M. Darlene Mercer and Doyle A. Smittle

`Gemini II' cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruits were stored for 2, 4, or 6 days at 5 and 6C in 1989 and for 5 days at SC or 10 days at 3C in 1990. Chilling injury (CI) symptoms were rated after 2 to 4 days at 25C. Cell wall polysaccharide concentrations in the peels and in injured and noninjured portions of the peels were determined only in 1990. High CO2 and low O2 delayed the onset of CI symptoms, but did not prevent symptom development. Chilling injury symptoms increased with longer exposure to chilling temperatures. Solubilization of cell wall polysaccharides was associated with development of CI symptoms. Variations in low methoxyl pectinates accounted for 70% of the variation in CI.

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C.B. Watkins and F.W. Liu

. 110 493 498 Burmeister, D.M. Dilley, D.R. 1995 A scald-like controlled atmosphere storage disorder of Empire apples—A chilling injury induced by CO 2 Postharvest Biol. Technol. 6 1 7 De Castro, E. Biasi, B. Mitcham, E. Tustin, S. Tanner, D. Jobling, J

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Stephen P. Lee, Paul M. Chen, Tony H.H. Chen, Diane M. Varga, and Eugene A. Mielke

A proportion of `d'Anjou' pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) developed a disorder, “black speck” or “skin speckling”, after prolonged controlled atmosphere (CA) storage (1% O2, - 0.5 C). A comparative study of biochemical components revealed that there was no significant difference in succinic, citric, fumaric, and pyruvic acids between the speckled' and normal skin tissues. The content of malic acid in the affected tissue was almost three times lower than that in the normal tissue. The specific activity of NADP-malic enzyme (EC in the affected tissue was also lower, but the total activities were similar. The affected tissue contained higher percentages of dry matter and soluble proteins than the normal tissue. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins showed that two groups of novel polypeptides appeared only in the affected skin tissue. This study indicated that a certain proportion of `d'Anjou' pear fruit might have been exposed to unfavorable preharvest environmental stresses, and, therefore, could no longer tolerate the subsequent semi-anaerobic and chilling stresses during prolonged CA storage.

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John M. DeLong, Robert K. Prange, Jerry C. Leyte, and Peter A. Harrison

HarvestWatch is a new chlorophyll fluorescence (F)-based technology that identifies the low-oxygen threshold for apple (Malus × domestica) fruit in dynamic low-O controlled atmosphere (DLOCA) storage environments [e.g., <1% oxygen (O2)]. Immediately following harvest, `Cortland', `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Honeycrisp', `Jonagold' and `McIntosh' fruit were cooled and loaded into 0.34 m3 (12.0 ft3) storage cabinets. A static controlled atmosphere (CA) regime of 1.5% O2, 1.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) and 3 °C (37.4 °F) [0 °C (32.0 °F) for `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious'] was established for the control fruit, while the low-O2 threshold was identified by a spike in the fluorescence parameter, Fα, as the O2 levels in the DLOCA cabinets were lowered below 1%. The DLOCA storages were then maintained at O2 levels of 0.1% to 0.2% above the threshold value for each cultivar, which returned Fα to prethreshold signatures. Quality measurements following 5 to 9 months of storage and a 7-day shelf life of 20 °C (68.0 °F), showed that the HarvestWatch fruit were generally firmer, had no incidence of superficial scald in `Cortland' and `Delicious' apples, and did not accumulate fermentative volatile compounds. The HarvestWatch system permits rapid, real-time measurements of the status of stored apple fruit in ultra low-O2 environments without the inconvenience of breaking the room's atmosphere. Our results indicate that HarvestWatch facilitates what may be the highest possible level of fruit quality retention in long-term, low-O2 apple storage without the use of scald-controlling or other chemicals before storage.

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Randolph Beaudry, Philip Schwallir, and Marian Lennington

Due to the the extremely high level of competition in the marketplace for stored apple fruit, the need for quality maintenance during storage is critical. Quality analysis of fruit at harvest supports the contention that there is a harvest period during which fruit picked for long-term controlled-atmosphere storage maximize grower returns. The apple maturity program used in Michigan for determining this optimal harvest period-or window -incorporates a bloom date-based prediction and fruit maturity analyses. Techniques used in collecting and disseminating maturity information and its interpretation are discussed.

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Ed Stover, Michael J. Fargione, Christopher B. Watkins, and Kevin A. Iungerman

`McIntosh' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) display a rapid increase in ethylene production as they ripen, resulting in more preharvest drop and accelerated softening compared with other major cultivars. Economic considerations often dictate a choice between delaying harvest to achieve color development or harvesting earlier to avoid excessive fruit softening and drop. We have evaluated the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and summer pruning on this balance. Treatments were applied to trees in the Mid-Hudson region in New York state in 1995 and 1996, and a subset of treatments was applied in the Champlain Valley region in 1996. NAA, applied at 10 mg·L-1 in 1995 and 20 mg·L-1 in 1996, reduced drop on only one sample date in only one of the three trials. Ethephon at 150 mg·L-1 plus 10 mg·L-1 NAA, accelerated ripening and permitted harvest before substantial drop occurred. However, earlier harvest resulted in smaller fruit size, and if ethephon-treated fruit were not picked within a narrow window, rapid drop ensued, and fruit developed a high senescent breakdown incidence during storage. ReTain, containing AVG, at 124 g·ha-1 a.i. delayed drop in all three trials, but its use resulted in firmer fruit after storage in only two of seven comparisons. Use of ethephon on AVG-treated trees enhanced red color but accelerated drop, although it was reduced less than when ethephon was used alone. Severe late summer pruning accelerated red color development, drop and ripening in both years of the study. AVG was more effective for management of `McIntosh' harvest in the cooler Champlain Valley region than in the Mid-Hudson Valley region. Chemical names used: naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon); aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG).