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S. Severmutlu, N. Mutlu, R.C. Shearman, E. Gurbuz, O. Gulsen, M. Hocagil, O. Karaguzel, T. Heng-Moss, T.P. Riordan, and R.E. Gaussoin

Warm-season turfgrasses are grown throughout the warm humid, sub-humid, and semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation of six warm-season turfgrass species and several of their cultivars to Mediterranean growing conditions of Turkey by evaluating turfgrass establishment rate, quality, color, and percentage of turfgrass cover. Information of this nature is lacking and would be helpful to turfgrass managers and advisers working in the region. A study was conducted over a 2-year period in two locations of the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The warm-season turfgrass species studied were bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiurioides). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was included as a cool-season turfgrass species for comparison. Twenty cultivars belonging to these species were evaluated for their establishment, turfgrass color and quality, spring green-up, and fall color retention. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and seashore paspalum established 95% or better coverage at 1095 growing degree days [GDD (5 °C base temperature)], buffalograss and centipedegrass at 1436 GDD, and ‘Zenith’ and ‘Companion’ Zoysiagrass had 90% and 84% coverage at Antalya after accumulating 2031 GDD. ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; ‘SWI-1044’, ‘SWI-1045’, ‘Princess 77’, and ‘Riviera’ bermudagrass; ‘Cody’ buffalograss; and ‘Zenith’ zoysiagrass exhibited acceptable turfgrass quality for 7 months throughout the growing season. ‘Argentine’ and ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass; ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; and ‘SWI-1044’ and ‘SWI-1045’ bermudagrass extended their growing season by retaining their green color 15 days or longer than the rest of the warm-season cultivars and/or species in the fall. The warm-season species stayed fully dormant throughout January and February. Zoysiagrass and buffalograss cultivars showed early spring green-up compared to the other warm-season species studied. Results from this study support the use of warm-season turfgrass species in this Mediterranean region, especially when heat stress and water limitations exist. Tall fescue did not survive summer heat stress necessitating reseeding in fall.

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J.W. Boyd, M.D. Richardson, and J.H. McCalla

Zoysiagass (Zoysia japonica) use continues to expand on golf courses, home lawns, and sports fields in the transition zone. Unfortunately, the slow growth rate of the species and long establishment period have limited its use to those sites that can afford zoysiagrass sod. The development of sprig-planting techniques that can produce a zoysiagrass turf in a single season would considerably increase the use of this desirable species. A study was conducted over 2 years at two different regions in Arkansas to evaluate the efficacy of a new zoysiagrass net-planting technique (ZNET) on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. The technique involves rolling the sprigs onto the site in cotton netting and top-dressing the sprigs with 1.0 cm (0.4 inch) of native soil. This technique was compared to a standard sprig-planting technique and a standard sprig planting that was also top-dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil. The standard treatments were planted according to established methods using freshly-harvested sprigs applied at a rate of 70.0 m3·ha-1 [800 bushels (1000 ft3) per acre]. Rate of turfgrass cover was monitored throughout the growing season. The ZNET planting technique significantly improved establishment over the traditional sprigging technique and the turf reached about 85% cover by the end of the growing season (120 days). Top-dressing a traditionally sprigged area with native soil also improvedestablishment compared to traditional sprigging and was comparable to the ZNET technique. It was concluded that the ZNET technique did improve establishment rates of zoysiagrass, but the same results could be attained by top-dressing sprigs that were planted with a standard planter.

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Kyle Briscoe, Grady Miller, Scott Brinton, Dan Bowman, and Charles Peacock

( Zoysia japonica Steud.). Furthermore, ‘Mirage’ bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers.] reached 100% coverage 24 d earlier than ‘Zenith’ zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) ( Patton et al., 2004 ). The slow establishment rate is

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John B. Stiglbauer, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Dara M. Park, Joe E. Toler, and Kendal Kirk

; Engelke and Anderson, 2003 ). Most commonly used zoysiagrasses in these zones include three species of Zoysia matrella [(L.) Merr.], Zoysia japonica (Steud.), and Zoysia pacifica (Willd. ex Thiele) ( Engelke and Anderson, 2003 ). Zoysiagrass has a

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Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Susana Milla-Lewis, Aaron J. Patton, Kevin Kenworthy, Ambika Chandra, F. Clint Waltz, George L. Hodnett, and David M. Stelly

, M. Han, J. Wang, Y. Cai, H. 2009 Construction of a high-density SSR marker-based linkage map of zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) Euphytica 170 327 339 Li, M. Yuyama, N. Hirata, M. Wang, Y. Han, J. Cai, H. 2010 An integrated SSR based linkage

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Orville C. Baldos, Joseph DeFrank, and Glenn Sakamoto

oxadiazon effectively controlled weeds and increased shoot dry weights and bulb yields in garlic ( Qasem, 1996 ) and shoot fresh and dry weight yields in marjoram ( Qasem and Foy, 2006 ). In zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica ), applications of oxadiazon enhanced

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Zachary D. Small, James D. McCurdy, Erick D. Begitschke, and Michael P. Richard

, such as bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactlyon ) and zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica ), during winter dormancy. Peters and McKelvey (1982) found that spring applications of paraquat in kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pretensis ) sod at a rate of 0.56 kg·ha −1

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Xiaoli Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Li Liao, Xinyi Zhang, and Changjun Bai

.) Pers.; Wang et al., 2013 ], zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.; Li et al., 2009 ), and centipedegrass [ Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack; Zheng et al., 2013 ]. However, there have been no similar publications on carpetgrass. This study is the

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Patrick A. Jones, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, José J. Vargas, Brandon J. Horvath, and John C. Sorochan

herbicides on bermudagrass ( Cynodon spp.) sprig establishment Weed Sci. 33 253 257 Boyd, J.W. Baird, J.H. 1997 Herbicide effects on sprig establishment of Zoysia japonica CV. El Toro and Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis cv. Midlawn Intl. Turf. Soc

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Erick G. Begitschke, James D. McCurdy, Te-Ming Tseng, T. Casey Barickman, Barry R. Stewart, Christian M. Baldwin, Michael P. Richard, and Maria Tomaso-Peterson

Zoysia japonica cv. El Toro and Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis cv. ‘Midlawn’ Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 8 1025 1032 Brosnan, J.T. Breeden, G.K. Thoms, A.W. Sorochan, J.C. 2014 Effects of preemergence herbicides on the establishment rate and