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Claudia Fassio, Ricardo Cautin, Alonso Pérez-Donoso, Claudia Bonomelli, and Mónica Castro

plants were separated into stems, leaves, and roots, and the tissues were dried in a forced-air oven at 70 °C for 72 h for biomass determination. The shoot dry weight was equal to the sum of the aerial vegetative plant parts (leaves + stems). The root

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Alexandra García-Castro, Astrid Volder, Hermann Restrepo-Diaz, Terri W. Starman, and Leonardo Lombardini

doses Rev. Bras. Eng. Agr. Ambient. 9 302 306 Dhawan, K. Suresh, K. Sharma, A. 2001 Anxiolytic activity of aerial and underground parts of Passiflora incarnata Fitoterapia 72 922 926 Escalona, J.M. Flexas, J. Medarano, H. 1999 Stomatal and non

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Xin Zhao, Qianqian Dong, Shubang Ni, Xiyong He, Hai Yue, Liang Tao, Yanli Nie, Caixian Tang, Fusuo Zhang, and Jianbo Shen

and sustainable orchards ( Jiao et al., 2016 ; Shen et al., 2013 ). This paper discusses the problems and challenges of macadamia production and development in China as well as other parts of the world, analyzes how cluster root growth affects the

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Kevin M. Miele, Jason J. Henderson, and John C. Inguagiato

or underground plant parts through vertical mowing or core cultivation for 7 d after application to enable translocation of the herbicide ( Anonymous, 2010 ). However, the effect of cultivation timing after glyphosate application on herbicide efficacy

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Nicholas D. Warren, Rebecca G. Sideman, and Richard G. Smith

, yellow shoulder, uneven ripening (parts of fruit remaining yellow), and various forms of fruit cracking ( Jones et al., 2014 ). While environmental factors usually determine whether particular disorders will be seen, cultivars differ in their

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Pheonah Nabukalu and Carrie A. Knott

beach environments with underground rhizomes ( Hester and Mendelssohn, 1987 ; Lonard et al., 2011 , 2012 ; Wagner, 1964 ), which are stimulated to grow by sand burial ( Lane et al., 2008 ; Wagner, 1964 ). Declining stands of sea oats in the northern

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Claudia Calonje, Chad Husby, and Michael Calonje

effort propagating and growing cycads in containers as well as in the ground. Historically, MBC has used a horticultural mix comprised of equal parts organic soil conditioner (Fafard Organic Soil Conditioner; Conrad Fafard, Inc., Agawam, MA), silica

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Raymond J. Schnell, Cecile L. Tondo, J. Steven Brown, David N. Kuhn, Tomás Ayala-Silva, James W. Borrone, and Thomas L. Davenport

protogynous dichogamy (DSPD), in which the male and female parts of the perfect flower are functional at different times ( Davenport, 1986 ; Ish-Am, 2005 ). Cultivars are classified based on their flowering behavior as either Type A or Type B; the types

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Guoqiang Wang, Ping Qu, Hongying Huang, Guofeng Wu, and Haijun Yan

period (60 d), the growth parameters were recorded. The roots were cleaned with distilled water and dried with paper towels. Root fresh weight and dry matter of the aboveground and underground parts were measured by an analytical balance (FA2004; Shanghai

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Ed Etxeberria, Pedro Gonzalez, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Parvesh Sharma, and Pu Chun Ke

), or stem injections ( Corredor et al., 2009 ; González-Melendi et al., 2008 ); application methods that were effective but differed from field conditions. Considering that the combined surface area of aboveground plant parts far exceeds the