Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzch) `Freedom Red' (FR), `Success Red' (SR), and `Winter Rose Dark Red' (WRDR) and pansy (Viola wittrockiana Gams.) `Colossus Yellow Blotch' (CYB), `Delta Pure Yellow' (DPY), and `Majestic Giants Purple' (MGP) were treated with 14 different tank mix combinations of daminozide and chlormequat ranging from 0 to 4500 mg·L-1 daminozide and 0 to 1500 mg·L-1 chlormequat. The tank mix treatments reduced stem elongation for all three poinsettia cultivars. Total bract area of FR and canopy bract diameter of WRDR decreased linearly as daminozide or chlormequat concentration increased, while bract area of SR was affected by daminozide alone. Anthesis was not delayed by any of the plant growth regulator (PGR) applications. For pansies, growth responses to the PGR treatments varied with cultivar. CYB growth was affected by daminozide alone, DPY growth was affected by daminozide and/or chlormequat, while MGP growth was relatively insensitive to both PGRs. Time to flower of pansy was not affected by the PGR applications. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide).
Kelly P. Lewis, James E. Faust, James D. Sparkman IV, and Larry W. Grimes
Chun-Yan Han, Gui-Fen Luo, Li Ji, Wei-Bang Sun, Xu-Yang Fu, and Cong-Ren Li
2.1 cm in width with several red–purple androgynaris androeciums. Flowers are yellow (RHS 2D) with rose–purple (RHS 68A) streaks on the edge and lower half of the outside in full sunlight ( Fig. 1 ). On the upper surface, the centers of flowers have
Dennis J. Werner and Layne K. Snelling
pink flower color and dense growth. Flowering begins in mid-May in Raleigh, NC, and continues throughout the growing season. Inflorescences average 10.6 cm in length and produce up to 160 flowers per inflorescence. Unopened flower buds are red–purple
Jessa Hughes, Hamid Khazaei, and Albert Vandenberg
from burgundy to purple. For example, the red flower phenotype derived from crosses with IG 114476 and Rinrei was a cooler tone and appeared purple, whereas red flower types derived from an Aurora/2 background had warmer red tones. Environmental
Ting Zhou, Hao Jiang, Wangxiang Zhang, Donglin Zhang, Junjun Fan, Quanquan Zhang, Guibin Wang, and Fuliang Cao
Crabapples ( Malus spp.) are small trees and shrubs in the rose family that are valued for their various types of flowers (single, semi-double, and double forms in shades of purple, red, pink, and white), colorful, small fruits (≤5 cm; primarily
Mary C. Acock, Zhongchun Wang, Basil Acock, and Robert Jones
The U.S. State Dept. annually publishes estimates of narcotic drug crop production worldwide. The areas under cultivation are well known but yields per unit land area are not. Determining opium gum yield from illicitly grown poppy Papaver somniferum L. is difficult and dangerous. Removing plants from the field and harvesting gum in a safe place would allow us to measure gum yield from one short field visit. To interpret these results in terms of total gum yield from the field, one must know how the measured gum is affected by gum collecting method, capsule age, and phenotype. Opium poppy seeds from three phenotypes (purple, white, and red-white flowers) were grown in a greenhouse and plants were either cut at the soil level or left intact for opium gum harvest at 7, 12, and 22 days after flowering (DAF). Capsule firmness was measured to estimate gum yield and capsule age, and the relationship between total gum yield and yield from the first lancing was examined. The average gum yield (8.4 mg·g–1 dry weight capsule) for the purple-flowered phenotypes was 17% and 25% lower than for the white- and red/white-flowered phenotypes, respectively. Capsule firmness of the three phenotypes varied from ≈800 to 2300 N·m–1 as the capsule aged. Gum yield and capsule firmness increased with capsule age but the timing of those changes differed among phenotypes. No significant correlations were found between capsule firmness and gum yield or between capsule firmness and age. Therefore, capsule firmness cannot be used to predict gum yield or capsule age. Gum yield from the first lancing was linearly correlated with total gum yield (r2 = 0.82). Since this relationship changes with growing condition, it is insufficient to predict total gum yield. Gum yield from cut plants was significantly lower than from intact plants for all three phenotypes at 22 DAF and for white-flowered phenotypes at 12 DAF. No difference in gum yield was observed between cut and intact plants at 7 or 12 DAF for purple and red/white-flowered phenotypes. The relationship between gum yield from cut and intact plants was too variable to predict gum yield from intact plants by measuring gum yield from cut plants.
Ting Zhou, Hao Jiang, Donglin Zhang, Junjun Fan, Long Zhang, Guibin Wang, Wangxiang Zhang, and Fuliang Cao
Crabapples ( Malus spp.) are small trees and shrubs in the rose family, and are valued for their charming flowers (single, semidouble, and double forms in shades of purple, red, pink, white); colorful, small fruits (≤5 cm; primarily purple, red
Mark J. Bassett
The inheritance of intensified anthocyanin expression (IAE) in a syndrome of plant organs of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. A selection from accession line G07262, having white flowers with blue veins on the wing petals and a long, white micropyle stripe on black seedcoats, was used as the source of IAE syndrome. G07262 was crossed with three genetic tester stocks based on Florida dry bean line 5-593, which has the flower and seedcoat genotype T P [C r] Z J G B V Rk. The tester stocks were 5-593 (black seed and bishops violet flowers), t z bip bipunctata BC1 5-593 (a partly colored seedcoat), and v BC2 5-593 (mineral brown seedcoat and white flowers). Analysis of the F1 and F2 data from the test cross G07262 × t z bip bipunctata BC1 5-593 demonstrated that 1) G07262 has genotype t p mic V; 2) genotype t/t prevents expression of IAE syndrome by a dominant gene (Prp i -2) carried cryptically by G07262, i.e., T/-is required for expression of the gene; and 3) Prp i -2 may (preliminary data) express blue veins on white flowers with t V. From the cross with v BC2 5-593, an F4 selection for white flowers with red banner back and mineral brown seedcoats (due to v) was made. When the F4 selection was crossed with 5-593, analysis of the F2 progeny demonstrated that G07262 carries a dominant gene for IAE syndrome, which expresses with V/- but not with v/v. From the test cross 5-593 × G07262, a series of additional cycles of selection and test crosses (including the dark red kidney tester c u b v rk d BC1 5-593) were made, and two new two-colored seedcoat patterns were developed that have never been previously reported. In a test cross with one of them, F2 data demonstrated that the dominant gene for IAE syndrome from G07262 is independent of the C locus, and the gene symbol Prp i -2 is proposed for this IAE syndrome gene to distinguish it from the previously reported IAE syndrome gene [c u Prp i]. A gene symbol reconciliation was made for all previous work with inheritance of IAE syndrome and purple pod genes without the syndrome.
Kristin L. Getter and Dale W. Rozeboom
pots) on 15 Jan. 2014. Initial measurements began on 17 Jan. 2014 and continued about once per week thereafter until plants were all in flower (saleable). The greenhouse environment was maintained at a 68 °F air temperature during the day and 60 °F air
Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly A. Moore
Salvia (Salvia splendens) `Red Vista' or `Purple Vista,' french marigold (Tagetes patula) `Little Hero Orange,' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) `Better Bell,' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) `Accent White,' and wax begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum) `Cocktail Vodka' were grown in 0.95-L (1-qt) containers using a 5 pine bark: 4 sedge peat: 1 sand substrate (Expts. 1 and 2) or Pro Mix BX (Expt. 2 only). They were fertilized weekly with 50 mL (1.7 fl oz) of a solution containing 100, 200, or 300 mg·L-1 (ppm) of nitrogen derived from 15N-6.5P-12.5K (1N-1P2O5-1K2O ratio) or 21N-3P-11.7K (3N-1P2O5-2K2O ratio) uncoated prills used in the manufacture of controlled-release fertilizers. Plants grown with Pro Mix BX were generally larger and produced more flowers or fruit than those grown with the pine bark mix. With few exceptions, plant color, root and shoot dry weights, and number of flowers or fruit were highly correlated with fertilization rate, but not with prill type. There appears to be little reason for using the more expensive 1-1-1 ratio prills, since they generally did not improve plant quality and may increase phosphorous runoff from bedding plant nurseries.