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Amir M. González-Delgado, Manoj K. Shukla, and Brian Schutte

information available on its fate and transport under laboratory and field conditions ( González-Delgado et al., 2017 ; Guerra et al., 2014 ; Trigo et al., 2014 ). Information on phytotoxicity effects of indaziflam on pecan is especially limited ( González

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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

lakes often use water from these sources to irrigate turf, bedding plants, foliage species, and other ornamental plants. Therefore, a study of the possible phytotoxicity of these herbicides is important to determine appropriate irrigation restrictions on

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Yi Zhang, Tracey Mechlin, and Imed Dami

a week before ABA application. Abscisic acid phytotoxicity The phytotoxicity of ABA was evaluated in leaves and nodes. Visual observation of leaf distortion was made 24 h after ABA application and leaf injury was assessed and recorded a week after

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Diane Feliciano Cayanan, Youbin Zheng, Ping Zhang, Tom Graham, Mike Dixon, Calvin Chong, and Jennifer Llewellyn

phytotoxic effects of chlorinated water on herbaceous ornamental and vegetable plants and even less so on woody ornamentals. Frink and Bugbee (1987) reported that geranium and begonia receiving chlorinated water declined in growth. Brown (1991) also

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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

irrigation restrictions to reduce the likelihood of phytotoxic effects on nonfood crops. Quinclorac is labeled for postemergence weed control in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and in warm- and cool-season grasses, including tall fescue ( Festuca spp.), kentucky

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Gerald M. Henry, Jared A. Hoyle, Leslie L. Beck, Tyler Cooper, Thayne Montague, and Cynthia McKenney

several broadleaf and grass weeds with preemergence applications of oxyfluorfen at 0.6 kg a.i./ha. Treated plots exhibited higher crop yields than weedy control plots with minimal olive tree phytotoxicity ( Montemurro et al., 2002 ). Flumioxazin, isoxaben

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J. J. Knabke and H. G. Hancock

Talstar 10WP insecticide/Miticide (bifenthrin) is used for the control of a broad spectrum of economic pests on ornamentals. Over 100 species of greenhouse and field–grown plants, trees and shrubs have been shown to exhibit no phytotoxic response to the wettable powder formulation. Research efforts with alternative bifenthrin, formulations, which exhibit equivalent pest efficacy and lack of phytotoxicity, may also provide unique application opportunities.

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Michelle L. Bell, James R. Baker, and Douglas A. Bailey

Potential phytotoxicity and plant growth-regulating activity of insecticidal dips for poinsettias was investigated by dipping, then growing unpinched, rooted cuttings of `Red Sails', `Freedom', and `V-14 Glory' in the following insecticidal emulsions for five durations: 2% insecticidal soap (Safer's), 2% horticultural oil (Sunspray Ultrafine), fluvalinate (Mavrik Aquaflow), oxythioquinox (Joust), kinoprene (EnstarII), azadirachtin (Margosan-O), fenoxycarb (Precision), and an oil-carrier formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Naturalis-L). Dips in soap, oxythioquinox, Naturalis-L, and oil were phytotoxic to all three cultivars. Also, kinoprene and fenoxycarb were phytotoxic to `Red Sails'. At dip durations of 10 s and greater, soap, Naturalis-L, and oil were phytotoxic. Oxythioquinox was phytotoxic at durations of 1 min, 15 min, and 1 h. Only fluvalinate was not phytotoxic as a 4-h dip. After 2 weeks, plants dipped in oxythioquinox, Naturalis-L, and oil were stunted. By week 4, differential cultivar effects were seen: six dips (all but fluvalinate and azadirachtin) stunted growth of `Red Sails', whereas only Naturalis-L and oil retarded growth of `V-14 Glory'. Six weeks after treatment, growth of all cultivars was stunted by oxythioquinox, Naturalis-L, and oil, but was not retarded by fluvalinate or azadirachtin. Dip duration significantly affected growth by weeks 4 and 6, when all durations of Naturalis-L and oil reduced growth. Additionally, 4-h dips of oxythioquinox and kinoprene stunted plants after 4 weeks, and 1- and 4-h dips of oxythioquinox, kinoprene, and fenoxycarb adversely affected growth after 6 weeks.

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A.L. Lancaster, C.E. Sams, D.E Deyton, and J.C. Cummins

Previous research indicated that soybean oil effectively controlled insects and mites on ornamentals. In some conditions, emulsified oil sprays have also been shown to cause phytotoxicity. The objective of this research was to determine which soybean oil emulsions and/or emulsifiers produced the least amount of phytotoxicity on miniature roses. Greenhouse-grown `Fashion' (pink), `Fiesta' (fuchsia), `Tender' (white), `Orange' (red), and `Bronze' (yellow) miniature roses in trade-gallon containers were sprayed once in late fall 1998. Treatments included: 1) water (control); 1% concentrations of commercial soybean oil formulations of 2) Soygold 1000 and 3) Soygold 2000 (Ag Environmental Products), 4) Emulsion A and 5) Emulsion B (Michigan Molecular Institute); 1% soybean oil emulsified with 6) 0.1% Ballistol (F.W. Klever, Germany), 7) 0.1% ERUCiCHEM (International Lubricants), 8) 0.1% ERUCiCHEM mixed with 0.01% lecithin (Chem Service), 9) 0.1% soy methylester (Michigan Molecular Institute), 10) 0.06% Atlox and 0.04% Tween (ICI Americas), 11) 0.1% E-Z-Mulse (Florida Chemical Company), or 12) 0.1% Latron B-1956 (Rohm & Haas). The emulsifiers were also tested alone for phytotoxicity to rose foliage. None of the emulsifiers caused significant damage. Soybean oil emulsified with E-Z-Mulse did not cause significant phytotoxicity as indicated by chlorosis of foliage. The commercially prepared Emulsion A, Soygold 1000 and Soygold 2000 caused slight phytotoxicity. Emulsion B and soybean oil plus Latron B-1956 caused moderate phytotoxicity. The soybean oil-Ballistol emulsion was the most phytotoxic. Cultivars varied in sensitivity (P < 0.01) to soybean oil emulsions (listed in the order of increasing sensitivity): `Orange', `Fashion', `Bronze', `Fiesta', and `Tender'.

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Patricia R. Knight*, Christine E. Coker, Benedict Posadas, and John M. Anderson

The IR-4 program works to identify potential minor-use horticultural chemicals and evaluate them for phytotoxicity and efficacy. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate phytotoxicity and weed control of three unlabeled herbicides on field production of Hemerocallis spp. `Ming Toy'. Ten-cm pots of `Ming Toy' were planted into the field 16 July 2001. Each plot consisted of 3 plants per treatment with 6 replications in a completely random design. Each herbicide was analyzed as a separate experiment. Herbicide treatments consisted of clopyralid (0.14, 0.28, 0.56, or 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.), clethodim (125, 250, or 500 mL·L-1 a.i.), or bentazon (1.1, 2.2, or 4.4 kg·ha-1 a.i.). Data collected included weed number, percentage of weed coverage (% weed coverage), and phytotoxicity and foliar color ratings for `Ming Toy'. Clopyralid reduced total weed number 90 DAT although % weed coverage was similar or worse compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant for plants treated with clopyralid, but foliar color ratings were reduced. Application of clethodim to `Ming Toy' plots, regardless of rate, resulted in similar weed numbers compared to the control 49 DAT. Clethodim application, regardless of rate, reduced % weed coverage compared to the control treatment. Phytotoxicity 90 DAT was not significant, regardless of herbicide treatment, but foliar color ratings were lower for herbicide treated plants compared to the control. Bentazon, regardless of rate, reduced weed number and % weed coverage 49 DAT compared to the control. Phytotoxicity was similar to the control for plants treated with 1.1 kg·ha-1 a.i.