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Raymond A. Cloyd

The way extension specialists and educators conduct programs, such as workshops, and transfer information to their designated clientele, including homeowners, professionals, and specialty groups, has changed within the last decade due to merging departments, budget cuts, reduced operating funds, and lack of refilling vacant positions. These factors have resulted in a number of driving forces that influence the way extension specialists and educators perform their duties, such as accountability, regionalization of extension, impact of technology, and expanding expertise. To be accountable under today's standards, extension specialists and educators must document the impact, relevance, and effectiveness of their programs. Required documentation must include economic, environmental, and human development factors. The effect of downsizing in many states has led to regionalization, which involves sharing extension specialists and educators across state boundaries. Although there are concerns, such as funding issues and evaluation of extension specialists and educators among states, regionalization in general has resulted in collaborative efforts to organize workshops and produce regional publications that serve a wider clientele base. Extension specialists and educators need to use computer-based and electronic technology, such as teleconferencing and distance-education, to present effective programs and address a wider audience, which will reduce the amount of required travel time. Finally, extension specialists and educators need to keep abreast of issues, such as invasive species, and develop programs to increase awareness of the economic and ecological impacts of invasive species in order to effectively serve the clientele base. Extension specialists and educators will more effectively serve their clientele, justify the importance of extension programming, demonstrate extension as a valued resource to administrators, and deal with the challenges of financial constraint existing now and in the foreseeable future by documenting impact, using multi-state programming, adopting new technology, and keeping up with current issues.

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Emily A. Barton, Susan S. Barton, and Thomas Ilvento

several states to respond to budget reductions is the use of distance education to reduce the number of face-to-face trainings across the state ( McGinnis, 2015 ; Stack, 1997 ; Warmund and Schrock, 1999 ). Upon the introduction of new innovations such as

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Kristin R. Campbell, Sandra B. Wilson, P. Christopher Wilson, and Zhenli He

A need for off-campus learning was realized as far back as the 1950s, when increased student enrollment was beginning to limit on-campus space ( Curtis, 1957 ). Today, most campus universities are moving toward distance education as a method for

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Milton E. Tignor, Sandra B. Wilson, Gene A. Giacomelli, Chieri Kubota, Efren Fitz-Rodriguez, Tracy A. Irani, Emily B. Rhoades, and Margaret J. McMahon

Russell (1999) compiled a large bibliography of research demonstrating that there is not a significant difference between standard and distance education learning. Yet rapid advances in the use of technology for the discipline of horticulture have

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Kimberly A. Moore and Brian J. Pearson

blended course blends online (30% to 79%) with face-to-face delivery ( Allen et al., 2016 ). In Fall 2014, of the 5.8 million distance education students, 2.58 million were taking all of their courses at distance, while 2.97 million were taking some, but

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Travis Wayne Shaddox and Joseph Bryan Unruh

distance on sand-based putting greens. Materials and methods This study was conducted at the University of Florida’s Research and Education Centers in Jay, FL (lat. 30°46′N, long. 87°08′W), and in Ft. Lauderdale, FL (lat. 29°24′N, long. 82°10′W). The study

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William J. Sciarappa, Vivian Quinn, and Daniel L. Ward

larger class sizes, increase demand for classroom space and develop more transportation problems. Distance education offers an alternative solution to these logistical issues as well as an opportunity for expanded academic outreach through a university

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Brian J. Pearson, Kimberly A. Moore, and Dennis T. Ray

asynchronous distance-education based courses. Literature cited Candy, P. Crebert, G. O’Leary, J. 1994 Developing lifelong learners through undergraduate education. Natl. Board Employment Educ. Training, Canberra, Australia Crawford, P. Lang, S. Fink, W. Dalton

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Mary M. Peet

courses in field and greenhouse vegetable production and been active in local and national distance education initiatives. She has visited greenhouses in 19 countries, given more than 100 professional presentations, including keynote addresses, has been on

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S. Christopher Marble and Todd P. West

information technology and distance education, as well as informal learning opportunities ( Wells, 2004 ). As the internet is now available virtually anywhere in the developed world, electronic delivery of information has become a preferred method for informal