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Mary Joy M. Abit and Bradley D. Hanson

Department of Food and Agriculture, 2013 ). PRE and POST-directed applications of registered and nonregistered herbicides were applied to the plots before and following rootstock seeding and emergence, respectively, using a carbon dioxide pressurized backpack

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Kathryn Homa, William P. Barney, William P. Davis, Daniel Guerrero, Mary J. Berger, Jose L. Lopez, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon

demonstrated a reduction in FOB on seed and improved plant resistance to FOB, it did not completely eliminate the pathogen. A heavier gas such as argon or a direct air plasma could be tested to improve pathogen inactivation ( Niedźwiedź et al., 2019 ). In this

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María Daniela Mares-Quiñones and Juan Ignacio Valiente-Banuet

). In vitro regeneration of piquin pepper plants has been achieved primarily by direct organogenesis methods. Regeneration efficiencies vary depending on genotype, culture media, and source of explant (hypocotyls and seed embryos are considered better

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Cary L. Rivard, Olha Sydorovych, Suzanne O'Connell, Mary M. Peet, and Frank J. Louws

, respectively ( Table 4 and 5 ). These costs reflect additional rootstock and scion seed costs, the direct costs of grafting (e.g., grafting labor, clips, healing chamber, etc.), and the indirect costs associated with growing a rootstock and scion crop before

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Qin Yang, Yan Fu, Yalan Liu, Tingting Zhang, Shu Peng, and Jie Deng

As early as 1868, Darwin devoted six pages to describe “the direct or immediate action of the male element on the mother form” in his book The Variation ( Liu, 2008 ); a phenomenon that now we call xenia. Xenia refers to the direct effect of the

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Jesse Puka-Beals and Greta Gramig

-tilling into living mulches and then direct seeding a vegetable crop may limit yield reductions by limiting competition between the living mulch and vegetable crop ( Masiunas, 1998 ). However, a secondary weed control tactic may be required to control weeds

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Hannah R. Swegarden, Craig C. Sheaffer, and Thomas E. Michaels

specific production and quality limitations. The large percentage of variation attributed to error in this study was most likely because of seed processing after harvest, in which all diseased and split seed was removed to represent a yield for direct

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Natalie R. Bumgarner, Whitney S. Miller, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

direct measures of many variables. Still, direct sampling consumes time, effort, crop tissue, space, and other resources. It may also produce misleading results, such as inaccurate estimates extrapolated from subsample biomass values ( Catchpole and

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Maria A. Macias-Leon and Daniel I. Leskovar

development when daylength exceeds 11–12 h, intermediate onions between 13 and 14 h, and long-day types more than 16 h ( Brewster, 1994 ). In the Southwestern United States, most short-day onion cultivars are direct-seeded between early September and early

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David Granatstein, Joan R. Davenport, and Elizabeth Kirby

loss, increasing weed seed germination, and damaging surface tree roots. Direct seeding equipment has been developed for a variety of cropping systems and can be adapted for use in orchards, thus avoiding these problems. The objectives of the study were