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María Daniela Mares-Quiñones and Juan Ignacio Valiente-Banuet

). In vitro regeneration of piquin pepper plants has been achieved primarily by direct organogenesis methods. Regeneration efficiencies vary depending on genotype, culture media, and source of explant (hypocotyls and seed embryos are considered better

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Cary L. Rivard, Olha Sydorovych, Suzanne O'Connell, Mary M. Peet, and Frank J. Louws

, respectively ( Table 4 and 5 ). These costs reflect additional rootstock and scion seed costs, the direct costs of grafting (e.g., grafting labor, clips, healing chamber, etc.), and the indirect costs associated with growing a rootstock and scion crop before

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Qin Yang, Yan Fu, Yalan Liu, Tingting Zhang, Shu Peng, and Jie Deng

As early as 1868, Darwin devoted six pages to describe “the direct or immediate action of the male element on the mother form” in his book The Variation ( Liu, 2008 ); a phenomenon that now we call xenia. Xenia refers to the direct effect of the

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Hannah R. Swegarden, Craig C. Sheaffer, and Thomas E. Michaels

specific production and quality limitations. The large percentage of variation attributed to error in this study was most likely because of seed processing after harvest, in which all diseased and split seed was removed to represent a yield for direct

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Natalie R. Bumgarner, Whitney S. Miller, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

direct measures of many variables. Still, direct sampling consumes time, effort, crop tissue, space, and other resources. It may also produce misleading results, such as inaccurate estimates extrapolated from subsample biomass values ( Catchpole and

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Maria A. Macias-Leon and Daniel I. Leskovar

development when daylength exceeds 11–12 h, intermediate onions between 13 and 14 h, and long-day types more than 16 h ( Brewster, 1994 ). In the Southwestern United States, most short-day onion cultivars are direct-seeded between early September and early

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David Granatstein, Joan R. Davenport, and Elizabeth Kirby

loss, increasing weed seed germination, and damaging surface tree roots. Direct seeding equipment has been developed for a variety of cropping systems and can be adapted for use in orchards, thus avoiding these problems. The objectives of the study were

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Haiyan Xu, Folian Li, Yuezhi Pan, and Xun Gong

interspecific hybridization processes between M. yunnanensis and M. crassipes and their heterozygote embryogenesis, and we hereby addressed three questions: 1) What are the hybridization processes of the direct cross and reciprocal cross between M

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Barbara M. Reed, Sara Schwanke, and Rebecca Shala

Cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (LN) is relatively routine for many small, desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds. Seeds of Pyrus species are considered orthodox but have not been evaluated for LN storage. Seeds of freshly collected P. communis L. (`Bosc') were evaluated for germinability and by TZ staining after exposure to four LN treatments: 1) direct immersion and direct removal; 2) direct immersion and 1 minute in LN vapor phase before removal; 3) 2 minutes in vapor phase before immersion and direct removal; and 4) 2 minutes in vapor phase before immersion and 1 minute in vapor phase before removal. Fresh `Bosc' seed viability evaluated by TZ and greenhouse germination tests remained high (83% to 100%) following four types of LN treatments, compared to the controls (77% to 87%). Differences in `Bosc' seed viability were small and TZ results showed no significant differences among the LN treatments. Direct LN immersion and removal resulted in significantly more greenhouse-germinated `Bosc' seeds than the other treatments and fewer control seeds germinated than any LN treated seeds. Fresh `Bosc' seed cryopreserved at 7.9% moisture exhibited high germinability by both TZ and germination tests. LN exposure caused no physical damage to the seeds. Chemical name used: 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TZ).

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J.E. Brown, R.P Yates, C. Stevens, and V.A. Khan

Effects of planting methods and rowcover on the production of yellow crookneck squash, Cucurbita pepo L. var. melopepo Alef., were evaluated over 2 years at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, Ala. Summer squash was direct-seeded or transplanted in the field with or without black plastic mulch and grown with or without rowcover. Yield of transplanted squash was significantly increased over the same squash direct-seeded. Neither plastic mulch nor rowcover had an effect on summer squash production. Transplants matured 8 to 10 days earlier than the direct-seeded plants.