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Garrett A. Ridge, Natasha L. Bell, Andrew J. Gitto, Steven N. Jeffers, and Sarah A. White

the roots of plants established in vegetated channels and stages within constructed wetland systems treating irrigation runoff at a commercial plant nursery; and 2) to determine if these associations were affected by time of year. Materials and methods

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W.L. Chen and D.M. Yeh

multiplication from stem section cultured in basal medium with 30 μ m BA for 45 d; ( E ) elongated shoots from stem section cultured in basal medium with 30 μ m BA; ( F ) rosette shoots with curved leaves (arrow indicated) from stem section cultured in basal

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Ryan N. Contreras and John M. Ruter

that C. americana was a tetraploid (2 n = 4 x = 36), concluding that x = 9 in Callicarpa . It seems that the erroneous citation of Sugiura's 1936 publication led to confusion regarding the base chromosome number in Callicarpa . Additional

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Zhaohui Li, Yan Ma, Wanyuan Yin, Dekui Zang, and Xianfeng Guo

visible external morphological change comprised basal swelling and callus formation around the cut surface of cuttings on day 5 ( Fig. 2B ), callus mass enlargement and enhancement on day 10 ( Fig. 2C ), emergence of adventitious roots through the callus

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Jinmin Fu and Peter H. Dernoeden

Careful water management is critical to growing quality creeping bentgrass during summer stress periods, especially in sand-based root zones. Many golf course superintendents in the mid-Atlantic region and elsewhere irrigate creeping bentgrass

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Natalia Salinas, Zhen Fan, Natalia Peres, Seonghee Lee, and Vance M. Whitaker

roots manifest brown-to-black lesions and begin to decay. In severe cases, when C. acutatum enters the crown from the roots, it causes a reddish brown basal necrotic crown rot ( Freeman and Katan, 1997 ). Underground infections affect aboveground

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Uttam K. Saha, Athanasios P. Papadopoulos, Xiuming Hao, and Shalin Khosla

.e., T1 and T3) was associated with apparently whiter roots. Between the two weight-based treatments, T6 had better root growth than T5 ( Plate 1 ). A similar trend in root growth at the bottom of the slabs in relation to various irrigation strategies was

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Renae E. Moran, Youping Sun, Fang Geng, Donglin Zhang, and Gennaro Fazio

Apple roots have limited ability to acclimate to cold temperatures ( Wildung et al., 1973 ) and can be injured by temperatures below –8 °C ( Embree, 1988 ). Cold-hardiness is the ability to tolerate subfreezing temperatures without injury to living

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Vicente Gimeno, James P. Syvertsen, Inma Simon, Vicente Martinez, Jose M. Camara-Zapata, Manuel Nieves, and Francisco Garcia-Sanchez

of organic matter, and reducing Fe and Mn ( Kozlowski, 1997 ). The main direct effect of flooding stress is the limiting availability of oxygen to the roots resulting from different chemical and biochemical reactions ( Domingo et al., 2002

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Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley

shoots in early March and treated with a 5-s basal quick-dip in a solution of the potassium (K) salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA) at 3000 ppm. Dirr and Heuser (1987) reported that plants could be successfully propagated using cuttings made as late