in these production systems, conditions are favorable for development of powdery mildew ( Xiao et al., 2001 ). Therefore, powdery mildew may have an increased economic impact in the near future in Florida. In most modern agricultural crops, breeders
Colleen Kennedy, Tomas N. Hasing, Natalia A. Peres, and Vance M. Whitaker
Kristine M. Lang and Ajay Nair
Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) ( Bruce et al., 2017 ; Carey et al., 2009 ). Driven by an interest in small-scale, local-market production systems and the cost share benefits provided by the NRCS EQIP
Peter A.W. Swain and Rebecca L. Darnell
Two cultivars of southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrid) were grown in containers under the traditional deciduous production system, or the dormancy-avoiding evergreen production system. In the dormancy-avoiding system, plants are maintained evergreen and do not enter dormancy in the winter. This alleviates the chilling requirement, thus extending the potential growing area of blueberries into subtropical regions. Plants in the evergreen production system were maintained in active growth through weekly or biweekly N fertilization (≈21–23 g N/ plant per year). Keeping foliage through the year lengthens the duration of the photosynthetic season of the plant and is hypothesized to improve the carbohydrate (CHO) status of the evergreen plants. This, in turn, may decrease source limitations to reproductive development and potentially increase fruit number and/or size. In both cultivars, the evergreen production system advanced the time of anthesis by 3 to 4 weeks compared to the deciduous production system. Plants in the evergreen system initiated 10% to 25% more flower buds than plants in the deciduous system, depending on cultivar. Average leaf area, leaf fresh weight, total above-ground fresh weight, bud density, and cane length were greater in the evergreen plants than deciduous. The evergreen production system increased plant fresh weight and flower bud number compared to the deciduous system, and may ultimately increase yield.
Javier Fernandez-Salvador, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla
to the in-row area. Little is known, however, about the influence of fertilizer sources of N that can be injected and fertigated on fruit yield and quality in organic blackberry. In organic production systems, many factors must be taken into account
Gregory M. Peck, Ian A. Merwin, Michael G. Brown, and Arthur M. Agnello
that pest pressure in humid environments may be a serious impediment to these production systems and that better pest management with new materials will be needed ( Delate et al., 2008 ; Suckling et al., 1999 ). Additionally, OFP has led to smaller
Daniel Warnock*, Megan Fifarek, and Heather Lash
The development of the Renaissance series of cut poinsettias, Euphorbia pulcherrima, presents unique opportunities and challenges to cut flower producers. This series has curled bracts, long stem length, excellent vase life and is highly marketable. Literature indicates that this crop is suited for pot or bed production, but does not compare methods. This study assessed the impact of production system on final stem quality. Uniform rooted cuttings of `Renaissance Red' obtained from a commercial supplier were transplanted into 30.5-cm pots or a 1.2-× 2.4-m bed containing a soilless media to obtain 2 plants per 0.9 m2. A total of 56 cuttings were used for each production system and grown using standard production techniques. Transplanting occurred on 11 Aug. 11 2003 with plants reaching market stage, two cyathia shedding pollen, about 17 weeks later. To minimize border effects, plants in the outside rows of each production system were discarded. Thus, stem length, stem diameter, bract diameter, floral development, and number of axillary shoots were determined for 30 interior plants in each system. The production systems differentially impacted stem length and number of axillary shoots. Mean stem length in the bed system (89.7 cm) was greater than that observed in the pot system (71.4 cm). Plants in the bed system had significantly fewer axillary branches per plant (0.5) than plants in the pots (2.0). Stem diameters were similar for both systems (11.5 mm and 10.9 mm for bench and pot, respectively) as were bract diameters (14.3 cm and 13.4 cm for pot and bench, respectively). Both systems produced marketable stems; however, stems produced in the bed system had longer stems, fewer axillary branches, and were more uniform than those in the pot system.
Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Stephen A. Emerson, and Guochen Yang
Plug seedlings of Tagetes erecta L. `Gold Coin Mix' were planted in four production systems (harvest lugs, lay-flat bags, pots, and polystyrene trays) on 5 May 2005. Production systems were randomized in a Latin-square design with four replications of each system. Each treatment plot was 0.7 m × 1.1 m. Planting density was 31 plants/m2. The harvest lugs were 55 cm × 37 cm × 16 cm. The lay-flat bags were 114 cm × 30 cm × 3 cm. The pots were 25-cm bulb pans. The polystyrene trays were 67 × 34 × 5 cm and contained 32 square cells. All of the containers were filled with the same tobacco germination media. The plants in the harvest lugs, lay-flat bags, and pots were irrigated on alternate days with 150 mg·kg-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. The plants in the polystyrene trays were floated on a solution of 150 mg·kg-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. Float solutions were monitored and adjusted weekly for volume and fertilizer concentration. Individual stems were harvested at the appropriate stage of development for market. The fresh weight, stem length, and dry weight of individual stems were recorded. The rate of growth and maturation differed between production systems and locations in the greenhouse. Detailed results will be presented.
Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight
-day treatments, is possible given the immense array of available cultivars. Production systems without short-day treatments are often referred to as “natural-day” production. As is true for most floriculture and nursery crops, increased competition and decreasing
Carl E. Niedziela Jr. and Guochen Yang
Plug seedlings of Celosia cristata L. `Persimmon Chief' were planted in four production systems (harvest lugs, lay-flat bags, pots, and polystyrene trays) on 7 May 2004. Production systems were randomized in a Latin-square design with four replications of each system. Each treatment plot was 0.7 m × 1.1 m. Planting density was 31 plants/m2. The harvest lugs were 55 cm × 37 cm × 16 cm. The lay-flat bags were 114 cm × 30 cm × 3 cm. The pots were 25 cm bulb pans. The polystyrene trays were 67 cm × 34 cm × 5 cm and contained 32 square cells. All of the containers were filled with the same tobacco germination media. The plants in the harvest lugs, lay-flat bags and pots were irrigated daily with 150 mg·g-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. The plants in the polystyrene trays were floated on a solution of 150 mg·g-1 N from 20N–4.4P–16.6K. Float solutions were monitored and adjusted weekly for volume and fertilizer concentration. Individual stems were harvested at the appropriate stage of development for market. The fresh weight, stem length and flower diameter of individual stems were recorded. Stems produced in float trays had the lowest fresh weight (162.2 g). Stems grown in harvest lugs (363.5 g) weighed more than those in pots (298.4 g) but not lay-flat bags (338.4 g, lsd 0.05 = 42.7). Stems grown in float trays (88.8 g) were shorter than lay-flat bags (121.5 g), harvest lugs (120.5 g), and pots (113.5 cm, lsd 0.05 = 10.5). Flower diameter did not differ between production systems (mean diameter = 7.2 cm).
Hyungmin Rho, Paul Colaizzi, James Gray, Li Paetzold, Qingwu Xue, Bhimanagouda Patil, and Charles Rush
vegetables have not been adequately investigated in this region. To protect crops from these abiotic and biotic threats, HT production systems have been suggested to ensure sustainable and stable cultivation of high-value crops in the region ( Lee et al