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Xue-Min Hou, Zi-Hua Wang, Xi-Min Deng, and Guo-Hui Li

distribution along the sample thickness that was established during centrifugation, as pointed out by Reatto et al. (2008) . Juice extracted by centrifugation was collected with a reservoir cup below the base of the sample holder. Osmotic potential and soluble

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Yaling Qian and Jack D. Fry

Greenhouse studies were conducted on three warm-season turfgrasses, `Midlawn' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy], `Prairie' buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.], and `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), and a cool-season turfgrass, `Mustang' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to determine 1) water relations and drought tolerance characteristics by subjecting container-grown grasses to drought and 2) potential relationships between osmotic adjustment (OA) and turf recovery after severe drought. Tall fescue was clipped at 6.3 cm once weekly, whereas warm-season grasses were clipped at 4.5 cm twice weekly. The threshold volumetric soil water content (SWC) at which a sharp decline in leaf water potential (ψL) occurred was higher for tall fescue than for warm-season grasses. Buffalograss exhibited the lowest and tall fescue exhibited the highest reduction in leaf pressure potential (ψP) per unit decline in ψL during dry down. Ranking of grasses for magnitude of OA was buffalograss (0.84 MPa) = zoysiagrass (0.77 MPa) > bermudagrass (0.60 MPa) > tall fescue (0.34 MPa). Grass coverage 2 weeks after irrigation was resumed was correlated positively with magnitude of OA (r = 0.66, P < 0.05).

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Kourosh Vahdati, Naser Lotfi, Bahman Kholdebarin, Darab Hassani, Reza Amiri, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, and Charles Leslie

. Five PEG solutions with osmotic potential (ψ S ) of –0.10, –0.50, –0.75, –1.00, and –1.50 MPa were prepared as described by Michel and Kaufmann (1973) . Distilled water was used as a control (0 MPa). Seeds were allowed to germinate at 25 ± 1 °C in the

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Wayne A. Mackay and Tim D. Davis

Seeds of four lupine species (L. microcarpus var. aureus, L. havardii, L. succulentis, and L. texensis) were subjected to 0, –2, –4, –6, or –8 bars osmotic potential using PEG 8000 solutions. Seeds of all species were acid scarified prior to placement in petri dishes containing the osmotic solutions. Petri dishes were placed in a seed germination chamber at 25°C with germination data collected daily for 15 days. Seeds of L. havardii, a desert species native to west Texas exhibited the greatest germination as osmotic potential declined while L. succulentis, a species adapted to moist sites, exhibited the greatest decline in germination as osmotic potential decreased. The other species exhibited intermediate germinability under the lower osmotic potentials.

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Qi Zhang and Kevin Rue

, or NaCl solution. The osmotic potential (ψ S ) of distilled water, mannitol, and NaCl was –0.1, –1.0, and –1.0 MPa, respectively. The salinity level of distilled water, mannitol, and NaCl was 0.1, 0.1, and 14.6 dS·m −1 , respectively. Data were

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Trygve S. Aamlid and Peter J. Landschoot

equivalent osmotic potentials created by SMS extract or polyethylene glycol on germination of perennial ryegrass and Kentucky bluegrass. In Dec. 2005, a new saturated paste extract was made based on the same SMS used in expt. 1. This extract showed an ECe

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Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Douglass F. Jacobs

using a Scholander-type pressure chamber (Model 600; PMS Instruments, Inc., Corvallis, OR) as per methodology in Cleary and Zaerr (1980) . Osmotic potential was measured on expressed leaf sap on the same leaf used for leaf water potential ( Callister et

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Sanalkumar Krishnan and Emily B. Merewitz

potential was determined based on the osmotic potential of fully rehydrated leaves (Ψ π100 ) as in the work of Rachmilevitch et al. (2006) . Turgid leaf samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Leaf sap was expressed from leaves manually using a micropestle

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Kourosh Vahdati, Zeinab Maleki Asayesh, Sasan Aliniaeifard, and Charles Leslie

.B. Otoni, W.C. 2003 Carbon sources and their osmotic potential in plant tissue culture: Does it matter? Sci. Hort. 97 193 202 Desjardins, Y. Gosselin, A. Yelle, S. 1987 Acclimatization of ex vitro strawberry plantlets in CO 2 enriched environments and

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Chiara Cirillo, Youssef Rouphael, Rosanna Caputo, Giampaolo Raimondi, and Stefania De Pascale

at midday. The osmotic potential (Ψ π ) was measured on frozen/thawed leaf samples and the pressure potential (Ψ p ) was estimated as the difference between Ψ w and Ψ π assuming a matric potential equal to 0. At 160 and 225 DAT, four plants per plot