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Gerald A. Tuskan, Emile J. Poisson, and Wayne A. Sargent

Benzylaminopurine and chlorflurenol were applied to 2-1 nursery stock of Scots pine and ponderosa pine and 2-0 nursery stock Colorado blue spruce and Black Hills spruce to determine if crown morphology was influenced by varying combinations of the two plant growth regulators. Four levels of benzylaminopurine, 0, 250, 750 and 1250 ppm, and two chlorflurenol levels, 0 and 1% (v/v) were tested. Morphological response to treatments was significantly enhanced when treatments were applied to open, elongating buds. Benzylaminopurine significantly increased bud and shoot formation, while chlorflurenol significantly reduced height and increased branch length at species dependent concentrations. The two plant growth regulators lacked positive synergistic effects.

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Gerald A. Tuskan, Emile J. Poisson, and Wayne A. Sargent

Benzylaminopurine and chlorflurenol were applied to 2-1 nursery stock of Scots pine and ponderosa pine and 2-0 nursery stock Colorado blue spruce and Black Hills spruce to determine if crown morphology was influenced by varying combinations of the two plant growth regulators. Four levels of benzylaminopurine, 0, 250, 750 and 1250 ppm, and two chlorflurenol levels, 0 and 1% (v/v) were tested. Morphological response to treatments was significantly enhanced when treatments were applied to open, elongating buds. Benzylaminopurine significantly increased bud and shoot formation, while chlorflurenol significantly reduced height and increased branch length at species dependent concentrations. The two plant growth regulators lacked positive synergistic effects.

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Annamarie Pennucci

Four novel and five commonly occurring diseases of ornamental nursery stock were evaluated for patterns of dissemination and rapidity of movement within a commercial nursery. Newly acquired but infected nursery stock provided a readily available inoculum source. Dissemination, pathogen movement, and disease development were positively correlated to minimal plant proximities, overhead irrigation, and communal root or soil environments. Water containment and recycling systems allowed movement of waterborne pathogens between plants on the same bench, in the same row, or on contiguous sheets of plastic or landscape fabric. Diseased plants located above uninfected stock or upstream or inside overhead irrigation systems provided a source for rapid aerial spread of conidia. Detached diseased plant parts provided rapid physical movement of pathogens and disease developed despite applications of fungicides. Exclusion of diseased plant materials accompanied by rigorous sanitation offer important means of limiting pathogen movement within the nursery.

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F.A. Bliss and Ali A. Almehdi

Seedlings of Prunus mahaleb are often used as rootstocks for sweet cherry (P. avium) scion cultivars in commercial orchards. While they are desirable based on ease of propagation and economical production of nursery stock, seedlings may be variable resulting in nonuniform compound trees, and they are susceptible to several important diseases. Seedling sources have shown substantial variability for population uniformity of plant growth, and reaction to crown gall, powdery mildew and Phytophthora root rot. Segregating families also vary for pollen fertility, inbreeding response and control of scion growth. Multiple screening for favorable trait combinations is underway to develop improved sources of cherry rootstocks.

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Mary Lamberts, Sylvia Gordon, and George Fitzpatrick

Growers producing new crops often do not understand how to price individual items. The prices of common container nursery stock items may be listed in monthly trade publications. Prices for fruits and vegetables fluctuate on a daily basis. A production budget for containerized specialty vegetables was adapted from one developed for ornamental nurseries, using some specific costs for field-grown vegetables. This gave a realistic way to calculate prices for individual products. Once the crops had been sold, the authors were able to validate the model by comparing actual costs with projected costs.

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William B. Miller and Erin Finan

Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named or criticism of similar ones not named. We are grateful to the Royal Dutch Wholesalers' Association for flower bulbs and nursery stock; the North American Flowerbulb Wholesalers

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Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, Mary Reitmeier, Barbara B. Stewart, and William B. Miller

Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named or criticism of similar ones not named. We are grateful to the Royal Dutch Wholesalers' Association for Flowerbulbs and Nursery Stock, SePro, Inc., Uniroyal Chemical Company

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Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, and William B. Miller

Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named or criticism of similar ones not named. We are grateful to the Dutch Exporters Association for Flowerbulbs and Nursery Stock, the Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation, the National

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N.K. Damayanthi Ranwala, Anil P. Ranwala, and William B. Miller

Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named or criticism of similar ones not named. We are grateful to the Royal Dutch Wholesalers' Association for Flowerbulbs and Nursery Stock, the Fred C. Gloeckner Foundation, and the

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Melvin P. Garber

Landscape architects occupy a strategic position in the landscape industry; yet, they have not been generally considered an important customer group by nurserymen. They influence selection of plant material for commercial, government, and residential landscapes and are generally the first to know what will be in demand. A recent survey of Georgia landscape architects found they specify $85 M of plants. This compares to the $200 M estimate for the 1989 wholesale value of nursery stock produced in Georgia. In addition, 60% of the landscape architectural firms influence which production nursery supplies plants by determining or recommending the production nursery where the landscape contractor obtains plants. More importantly, 92% of the large firms, which account for 67% of the dollar value, are involved in selection of the production nursery. The results provide the first quantitative estimate of the influence of landscape architects on nurserymen and suggest that nurserymen should view landscape architects as important customers.