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Theo J. Blom and David Kerec

Potted bulbs of Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Ace', `Nellie White', and `Snow White' were grown under either ambient photo period (APP), 8-h photo period using blackout (no twilight) between 1600 and 0800 HR (8PP) or 8PP extended with 1-h of low-intensity far-red radiation (9PP) at end-of-light period in a greenhouse with either a +5 °C DIF or a –5 °C DIF (= day – night temperature). In a second experiment, Easter lilies were also grown under APP, 8PP, and 9PP regimes with a constant day/night temperature (0 °C DIF) but with either a +5 °C or –5 °C temperature pulse for 3-h during end-of-light period. Each experiment was replicated twice and data was averaged over 2 years. The +5 °C DIF regime produced plants which were 19% taller than under –5 °C DIF. Plants grown under APP were 32% and 25% taller than under 8PP in the +5 °C and –5 °C DIF regimes, respectively. Regardless of the DIF regime, plant height under the 9PP was the same. In the second experiment, there was no significant difference in plant height of plants grown with the –5 °C compared with the +5 °C pulse at end-of-light period.

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Elsa Sánchez, Kathleen Kelley, and Lynn Butler

Eight edamame (Glycine max) cultivars were evaluated in the field in 2002, 2003, and 2004 to determine suitability for growing in central Pennsylvania. Data collection included plant populations (percent stand), marketable and unmarketable yields and edamame pod and bean quality indicators. Plant populations varied by year and cultivar and were generally below 80%. The effect of temperature on seedling emergence, and therefore plant populations, was evaluated for four edamame cultivars by using growth chambers programmed with varying day/night temperature regimes. Seedling emergence varied by cultivar and was generally below 80% with two exceptions. When grown in a 70/60 °F day/night temperature regime, `Butterbeans', and `Early Hakucho' exceeded 80% seedling emergence. In the field trial, plant populations affected marketable yields. Pod and bean quality were dependent on cultivar. Results indicated that `Butterbeans', `Early Hakucho', `Green Legend', `Shironomai', `Butterbaby', and `Lucky Lion' appear promising for growing in Pennsylvania based on pod and bean quality. However, the issue of poor seedling emergence and plant populations presents a major constraint to commercial production and needs to be studied further.

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Setapong Lekawatana and Richard A. Criley

Inflorescence abortion in heliconia contributes to an economic loss to growers. In an effort to determine the cause, we manipulated temperature, daylength and light intensity. Plants of Heliconia stricta cv. Dwarf Jamaican were grown in 4 day/night temperature regimes (15/10, 20/15, 25/20 and 30/25°C) under 14 hr daylength. In a separate experiment, plants were grown in full sun, 60% and 80% shade. Both experiments had been conducted after inflorescences were induced (4 weeks of short days). Apical meristems were dissected weekly to follow inflorescence development. Leaf abscisic acid level was detected by an indirect ELISA. Significantly more inflorescences were aborted in plants grown under high temperature regimes than in plants grown under low temperature regimes and under different light intensity. Abscisic acid concentration increased in heliconia leaves under regimes that induced inflorescence abortion. The results could provide a mean to improve heliconia inflorescence production.

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Giovanni D'Angelo, Piero Frangi, and Pierluigi Verga

In Northern Italy, two trials have been performed on Lilium and poinsettia cultivars to control plant height by day–night temperature regimes. Two identical glasshouse compartments have been used for the experiments: one maintained at standard conditions (the same minimum and ventilation temperatures during day and night), the other with minimum day temperature lower than night. Cultivations of lilies and poinsettias started in Winter and Summer 1993, respectively, with different climate conditions (cold in winter and hot in summer). Results on Lilium indicated that a good control of greenhouse temperature can be achieved in Italy's winter climate, even on sunny days; the best height reduction (30%) was obtained on Lilium longiflorum cv. `White American', compared to other Lilium species. Test on poinsettia have been based mainly on controlling ventilation of the glasshouse to raise temperature in the first part of the night and to lower it during the first daytime hours.

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Yaping Si and Royal D. Heins

Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum `Resistant Giant #4') seedlings were grown in 128-cell plug trays under 16 day/night temperature (DT/NT) regimes from 14 to 26C. In this temperature range, plant stem height, leaf unfolding rate, plant volume, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, and shoot dry weight were primarily functions of average daily temperature (ADT). Internode length increased as ADT or the difference between day and night temperature (DIF) increased. The root-to-shoot ratio decreased linearly as DT increased and was not significantly affected by NT. Leaves were darker green under positive DIF than negative DIF temperature regimes. Increasing NT from 14 to 26C reduced the node at which the first flower appeared by an average of 1.2 nodes. Percent abortion of the first flower increased as DT increased. Plant quality, as defined by seedling index [(dry weight × stem diameter)/internode length], increased as DIF became more negative.

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Sorkel Kadir, Said Ennahli, and Ben Glass

Interactive effects of different temperature regimes and anti-transpiration organic materials, Surround WP (kaolinite clay) and Raynox (sun-protectant), on two strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) cvs. Chandler and Sweet Charlie were investigated under controlled environmental conditions. Newly planted strawberries treated with Surround and Raynox were subjected to 20/15, 30/25, and 40/35 °C (day/night) temperature regimes and 16 day/8 night photoperiod in growth chambers for 42 d. Photosynthesis (A) and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) were measured at 7-d intervals during the experiment. Plants treated with Raynox displayed greater resistance to high temperature (40/35 °C) compared to those treated with Surround. Net photosynthesis of both cultivars decreased significantly with time at 40/35 °C. There was no significant difference in photosynthetic rate between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, there was difference in plant biomass between the cultivars. Raynox provided more protection against high temperature, specifically in reducing stomatal conductance and limiting transpiration, than Surround.

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Mary M. Peet and Suguru Sato

Peet et al. (1997) demonstrated that in male-sterile tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill cv. NC8288) (MSs) provided with pollen from male-fertile plants (MFs) grown at 24°C daily mean, percent fruit set, total number and weight of fruit, and relative seediness decreased linearly as mean daily temperature rose from 25 to 29°C. The primary parameter affecting these variables was mean temperature, with day temperature at a given night temperature, night temperature at a given day temperature, and day/night temperature differential having secondary or no effect. To compare the effect of temperature stress experienced only by the female tissues with that experienced by the male tissues or both male and female tissues, MSs and MFs were grown in 28/22°C, 30/24°C, and 32/26°C day/night temperature chambers. Fruit yield and seed number per fruit declined sharply when increased temperatures were experienced by both male and female tissues (MFs). There was no fruit set in any of the MSs assigned to the 32/26°C pollen treatment, mostly because of the limited amount of pollen available from MFs. Both fruit production and seed content per fruit were also greatly reduced in MSs receiving pollen from 30/24°C grown MFs for the same reason. For plants experiencing stress only on female tissues (MSs grown at high temperatures, but receiving pollen from MFs grown at the lowest temperature), there was also a linear decrease in fruit yield as growth temperatures increased, as previously seen by Peet et al. (1997), but the temperature effect was less pronounced than that on pollen production. Thus, for this system, temperature stress decreased yield much more drastically when experienced by male reproductive tissues than when experienced only by female reproductive tissues.

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Qingzhang Xu, Bingru Huang, and Zhaolong Wang

Heat injury in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds) has been associated with decreases in carbohydrate availability. Extending light duration may increase carbohydrate availability and thus improve growth of creeping bentgrass under heat stress. The objective of this study was to investigate whether turf performance and carbohydrate status could be improved by extending daily light duration for creeping bentgrass exposed to supraoptimal temperature conditions. `Penncross' plants were initially grown in growth chambers set at a day/night temperature of 20/15 °C and 14-hour photoperiod and then exposed to a day/night temperature of 33/28 °C (heat stress) and three different light durations: 14 (control), 18, and 22 hours (extended light duration) for 30 days. Turf quality and tiller density decreased with the duration of heat stress, as compared to the initial level at 20 °C, regardless of the light duration. However, both parameters increased with extended light duration from 14 to 18 or 22 hours. Extended light duration, particularly to 22 hours, also improved canopy net photosynthetic rate from -1.26 to 0.39 μmol·m-2·s-1 and daily total amount of carbon assimilation from -6.4 to 31.0 mmol·m-2·d-1, but reduced daily total amount of carbon loss or consumption to 50% through dark respiration compared to 14 hours treatment by the end of experiment. In addition, extending light duration from 14 to 22 hours increased water-soluble carbohydrate content in leaves both at the end of light duration and the dark period. These results demonstrated that extending light duration improved turf performance of creeping bentgrass under heat stress, as manifested by the increased tiller density and turf quality. This could be related to the increased carbohydrate production and accumulation. Supplemental lighting could be used to improve performance if creeping bentgrass is suffering from heat stress.

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Ian R. Rodriguez, Lambert B. McCarty, Joe E. Toler, and Roy B. Dodd

Use of creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stoloniferous L. var. palustris (Huds.)] on golf greens has expanded into the hotter, more humid regions of the United States where its quality is often low during summer months. The summer decline in bentgrass quality may be partially attributed to respiration rates exceeding photosynthesis during periods of supraoptimal temperatures and adverse soil conditions, such as excessive CO2 and inadequate O2 levels. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of high temperature, high soil CO2, and irrigation scheduling on creeping bentgrass growth. A growth chamber study was conducted using `A-1' creeping bentgrass. Treatments included all combinations of three day/night temperature regimes (26.5/21 °C, 29.5/24 °C, and 32/26.5 °C), three irrigation schedules (field capacity daily, field capacity every two d, and half field capacity daily), and four soil CO2 injection levels (10%, 5%, 0.03%, and a noinjection control). Creeping bentgrass shoot and root dry weights and net photosynthetic rates were greater for day/night temperatures <32/26.5 °C. High temperatures (32/26.5 °C) and 10% CO2 reduced bentgrass net photosynthesis by 37.5 μmol CO2/m2/s. Shoot and root total nonstructural carbohydrates also were lowest for highest temperature regime. Respiration exceeded gross photosynthesis at 32/26.5 °C when 5% and 10% CO2 injection levels were used, indicating a carbon deficit occurred for these conditions. Irrigation volume and frequency did not affect bentgrass growth. High temperatures combined with high soil CO2 levels produced poorest turf quality.

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Yin-Tung Wang

Since Phalaenopsis orchids are CAM plants, learning how they respond to night temperature warmer than the day would help regulate their production. On 1 Apr. 2003, P. amabilis plants were subjected to day/night temperatures at 30/25, 25/30, 25/20, 20/25, 20/15, or 15/20 °C under 140 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF. After 4 months, the total length of new leaves was shorter as a result of fewer and shorter new leaves when nights were cooler than the days and as the average daily temperature declined. More spikes were produced at 25/20 and 20/25 °C than at 20/15 or 15/20 °C. In another experiment, P. amabilis plants were moved to the above conditions on 12 Aug. Plants exposed to 30/25 or 25/30 °C had more leaf growth than at lower temperatures, but no flowering. Plants that were exposed to 25/20 or 20/25 °C spiked in 2 weeks; but plants took 20 and 18 d to spike under 20/15 or 15/20 °C, respectively. Again, as average daily temperature decreased, there was less leaf growth. Cooler day than the night reduced vegetative growth, regardless of temperature. Plants at 25/20 or 20/25 °C had higher flower count (12) than those at 20/15 or 15/20 °C (8). In a third experiment, plants of a large-flowered Doritaenopsis hybrid spiked at 22–24 d when exposed to 25/20 or 20/25 °C, whereas 30-33 d were needed to spike under 20/15 or 15/20 °C. In a fourth experiment, a Doritaenopsis hybrid spiked after 22, 21, or 25 d under 25/25, 25/20, or 20/20 °C. However, 37 d was required to spike under 20/15 °C. These results suggest that the best temperature range for spiking these orchids is 25 to 20 °C and a day/night temperature differential is not needed for spiking when temperature is at or below 25 °C.