Our previous research has demonstrated preventive effects of foliar sprays of growth regulators containing GA4+7 (ProVide or Promalin) on cold storage-induced leaf yellowing and abscission in `Stargazer' hybrid lilies. Further research was conducted to investigate the effective concentrations of Promalin and appropriate timing of promalin sprays. Lilies at “puffy bud” stage were sprayed with promalin at concentrations of 10, 25, 50 or 100 ppm (each GA4+7 and BA) just before placing them at 4 °C for 2 weeks in darkness. Promalin concentrations of 25 ppm or above completely prevented cold storage-induced leaf yellowing occurring during the poststorage evaluation phase in a simulated consumer environment, whereas 10 ppm sprays only partially prevented it. Foliar spray of Promalin (100 ppm each GA4+7 and BA) just before storage at 4 °C for 2 weeks was compared with spraying 2 or 4 weeks before cold storage. While spraying 2 weeks before storage prevented leaf yellowing to the same extent observed in plants sprayed just before cold storage, spraying 4 weeks before storage had very little preventive effect on leaf yellowing. To investigate the effectiveness of promalin sprays with different cold storage durations, puffy-bud stage plants were stored at 4 °C for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks in darkness with or without promalin sprays (100 ppm each GA4+7 and BA) before storage. Longer cold storage durations increased the severity of leaf yellowing occurring during poststorage phase. Although promalin was able to prevent leaf yellowing completely up to 2 weeks of cold storage, beyond 3 weeks of cold-storage, effectiveness of promalin diminished with no apparent preventive effect on plants stored for 5 weeks.
Anil P. Ranwala and William B. Miller
Jan E.P. Debaene and I.L. Goldman
Raw onion extract contains organosulfur compounds that prevent aggregation of platelets in human blood plasma and influence onion pungency. An increase in antiplatelet activity has the potential of reducing cardiovascular diseases. Accumulating organosulfur compounds directly influences pyruvic acid concentrations and may determine antiplatelet activity. Organosulfur compounds are volatile and may change concentration during storage. A study was conducted to evaluate antiplatelet activity, pyruvic acid content, and percent solids during cold storage. Two low-pungency lines (8155B and Exhibition) and two high-pungency (W420B and W434B) lines were grown in replicated plots at two Wisconsin locations in 1994 and 1995. Bulbs were evaluated for antiplatelet activity, percent solids, and pyruvic acid content at 40-day intervals after onion harvest. We found significant differences for antiplatelet activity and pyruvic acid content among dates of sampling and lines. Averaged over lines antiplatelet activity increased by 73% and 29% over 160 days in storage during the 1994–95 and 1995–96 storage seasons, respectively. Mean pyruvic acid concentrations increased 27% for the 1994–95 storage season and decreased 27.5% for the 1995–96 storage season. There were no significant changes for solids during storage for both years. These data indicate that antiplatelet activity increases during storage, which may be beneficial for human health. Since onions are often stored for long periods of time before sale, an increase in antiplatelet activity may be an added benefit for this crop.
Karen L.B. Gast and Melinda McMillan
Peony flowers are among the few fresh-cut flowers that can be stored dry at cold temperatures for weeks and still produce a viable product for the marketplace. Devising new ways to extend that storage period could open new markets for peony growers. In the northern hemisphere, more peonies could be available for summer weddings, and in the southern hemisphere, red peonies could be used for Valentine's Day. Being able to control and extend the vaselife of peony flowers could also be useful for companies that freeze-dry peonies. Their production is limited by the length of their processing cycle and the size of their freeze dryer. Being able to extend their production season could make them more profitable. Three treatments were applied to peony flowers harvested in the colored bud stage before flowers where placed in cold storage, 2°C. An untreated control was included. Flowers were removed from storage every 2 weeks for 14 weeks. Vaselife and fresh weights were evaluated. Total nonstructural carbohydrate levels of the petals, leaves, and stems of the flowers are to be analyzed. Preliminary analysis of the data shows some treatment differences.
Eduardo Olate, Doris Ly, George Elliott, and Mark Bridgen
Two butterfly-type cultivars of Alstroemeria were used to evaluate the effect of different dates of propagation and cold storage techniques on the growth and flowering of potted plants. The cultivars used were `Patricia Lynn' and FL-101. Plants were propagated during four different dates of 1997 (weeks 39, 41, 43, and 47) in large nursery pots (3.8 L) or in small nursery pots (1.4 L). Following division, all plants were grown for 4 weeks. After this period of establishment, plants in the large nursery pots were transferred directly to the final growing greenhouse (16 °C nights) and plants in the small pots were refrigerated at 4 °C for 8, 6, 4, or 0 weeks with either complete light or complete dark conditions. Once the cold treatment was accomplished, all plants were transferred on the same date to large nursery pots for finishing with those plants that had been initially propagated in large pots. All plants were cut back on week 3 of 1998. Plants were evaluated for date of harvest, visual evaluation, fresh aerial weight, number and length of flowering stems, and number of florets per flowering stem. Refrigerated treatments delayed the time of flowering when compared to plants that were grown with no refrigeration. Fresh weight and stem length values of plants that were not refrigerated were less than or equal to those of plants that were refrigerated, with the exception of plants that was propagated on week 47. In addition, the number of flowering stems that were produced from plants that were refrigerated was either greater than or the same as plants that were not refrigerated. The presence or absence of light during refrigeration had no effect on subsequent plant growth and development. There were no differences observed among treatments for visual evaluation and number of florets produced per inflorescence. This research demonstrated that potted Alstroemeria plants can be propagated early and stored under cold conditions without these procedures affecting final plant performance, but the process will affect the scheduling of the crop.
R. Porat, B. Weiss, L. Cohen, A. Daus, and E. Cohen
`Oroblanco' is an early-maturing pummelo-grapefruit hybrid (Citrus grandis × C. paradisi). The fruit of this cultivar are usually picked in October and are marketed while their peel color is still green. However, during long-term storage, the fruit turns yellow, and loses much of their commercial value. In a previous study, we found that application of gibberellic acid and low storage temperatures of 2 °C (35.6 °F) markedly reduced the rate of degreening. However, `Oroblanco' fruit are sensitive to chilling injuries, and thus could not be stored at 2 °C for long periods. In the present study, we examined the possible application of intermittent warming (IW) and temperature conditioning (TC) treatments, in order to retain the green fruit color during long-term cold storage but without enhancing the development of chilling injuries. It was found, that following storage at 2 °C, either with or without IW and TC, the fruit retained green color up to 16 weeks, whereas at 11 °C (51.8 °F) fruit turned yellow after 8 weeks. However, untreated fruit held continuously at 2 °C developed 40, 51, and 68% chilling injuries after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively. IW (storage at cycles of 3 weeks at 2 °C + 1 week at 11 °C) reduced the amount of chilling injuries to only 5, 7 and 11% after the same periods of time, respectively. TC [a pre-storage treatment for 7 days at 16 °C (60.8 °F) before continuous storage at 2 °C] effectively reduced the development of chilling injuries to only 5% after 8 weeks of storage, but was ineffective in reducing chilling damage after longer storage periods. Because chilling damaged fruit is prone to decay, the IW and TC treatments also reduced the incidence of decay development during storage. The IW and TC treatments did not affect juice total soluble solids and acid percentages, but did affect fruit taste and the amounts of off-flavor volatiles emitted from the juice. Taste panels indicated that the taste score of untreated control fruit stored at 11 °C gradually decreased during long-term storage, and that this decrease was more severe in chilling damaged fruit stored continuously at 2 °C. The taste of IW-treated fruit remained acceptable even after 16 weeks of storage, and TC-treated fruit remained acceptable for up to 12 weeks. Fruit taste scores were inversely correlated with the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde detected in the juice headspace.
Sukhvinder Pal Singh and Zora Singh
development and severity of CI in japanese plums based on the oxidative stress theory following time course analysis of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in a multiple sampling framework. Materials and Methods Fruit material and cold storage. Japanese
Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, James J. Luby, David Bedford, Benham E.L. Lockhart, Roy G. Kiambi, and Dimitre Mollov
Apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit are susceptible to a variety of postharvest disorders ( Meheriuk et al., 1994 ; Plagge et al., 1935 ) that may or may not be present at harvest but are typically manifested after several months of cold
Wilawan Kumpoun, Takashi Nishizawa, Yoshie Motomura, Tanidchaya Puthmee, and Toshiyuki Aikawa
conditions because the antioxidant capacities of mango fruit also decrease during cold storage ( Ding et al., 2007 ; Miguel et al., 2011 ; Shivashankara et al., 2004 ), which may result in the disturbance of physiological functions in the cell membranes
Yin Xu, Yizhou Ma, Nicholas P. Howard, Changbin Chen, Cindy B.S. Tong, Gail Celio, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Renae E. Moran
., 2004 ). Preconditioning fruit by holding them at a warm temperature before cold storage is the most effective method used by the industry, but can be ineffective under some conditions ( Moran et al., 2010 ). Increasing success in predicting the
Alicain S. Carlson and John M. Dole
this study were to determine optimal production temperature, transplant stage, and postharvest procedures, including commercial preservatives, ethylene sensitivity, sucrose pulses, and cold storage for ‘Esprit’ penstemon to be considered for use as a