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Les Padley Jr. and Paul Lyrene

Over the past two decades, selections that produce crisp-textured blueberries have been noted by breeders. Research was conducted to determine how these selections differ from standard cultivars. Four blueberry clones with crisp texture were compared, using firmness, with 94 advanced selections from the University of Florida blueberry breeding program. The clones, tested for berry firmness with an Instron machine, produced a normal distribution. The crisp clones were at the high end of the distribution, but were not qualitatively different from other firm-fruited selections. Firmness was tested during final stages of berry development to determine if crisp clones softened more slowly than standard cultivars. In both 2003 and 2004, firmness decreased greatly from the white to pink stages of development, with slower loss of firmness thereafter. Crisp and commercial clones were similar in the timing of firmness loss. Berries from six crisp clones and four firm commercial cultivars were subjected to shear cell tests to see if the two groups could be distinguished. Shear cell tests from early and late harvests in the same year showed good agreement. Three of the four crisp clones were much higher in shear force than the other clones tested. A consumer sensory panel was conducted to determine if the average person could distinguish between the berries of crisp and standard cultivars. Ninety-five subjects were given two samples each of crisp and non-crisp blueberries, and asked to designate the one sample they thought the most crisp. Seventy-five subjects chose one of the two crisp clones and 20 chose one of the standard clones. This research indicates that crisp texture in blueberry exists and is recognizable and repeatable, but is difficult to objectively define.

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt

, PYO, and home use. Origin Dr. Frederick V. Coville was the founder of the USDA blueberry breeding program (which began in 1911) and he is credited for 15 cultivars developed from crosses made during his lifetime ( Mainland, 2012 ). He has also been

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Duane W. Greene

occurring, the extent of production, and the primary blueberry species responsible for this production. Chapter 2 first reviewed the taxonomy of the blueberry. Breeding efforts past and present were discussed next, followed by a description of

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Paul M. Lyrene

Lyrene, P.M. Moore, J.N. 2006 Blueberry breeding 38 48 Childers N.F. Lyrene P.M. Blueberries N.F. Childers Horticultural Publications Gainesville, FL Sharpe, R.H. Darrow, G

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and Chad E. Finn

these plant materials. The Univ. of Florida patented and released a pink-fruited rabbiteye ( V. ashei Reade) cultivar in 2004 (‘Florida Rose’; Lyrene, 2004 ), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture blueberry breeding program has received several

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Guohui Xu, Lei Lei, and Hexin Wang

Bul. 767 Hepler, P.R. Draper, A.D. 1976 ‘Patriot’ blueberry HortScience 11 272 Johnston, S. 1956 Blueberry breeding in Michigan Fruit Varieties and Horticultural Digest 11 20

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Anish Malladi, Tripti Vashisth, and Scott NeSmith

considerable research efforts underway to enhance the efficiency of this process. In fact, a current area of focus of several blueberry breeding programs is the development of genotypes better suited for mechanical harvesting ( NeSmith, 2009 ; Jim Olmstead

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Dario J. Chavez and Paul M. Lyrene

and Darrow, 1959 ; Sharpe and Shoemaker, 1958 ; Woodell and Valentine, 1961 ). In the southern highbush blueberry breeding program at the University of Florida, many tetraploid hybrids have been produced using diploid V. darrowii 's tendency to

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Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Barbara J. Smith, and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

addition, 15 southern highbush accessions ( 2n = 4x = 48) from different blueberry breeding programs and two interspecific hybrids, ( V. corymbosum cv. Rubel × V. pallidum accession B0100) and ( V. elliottii accession B0230 × V. pallidum accession

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Dario J. Chavez and Paul M. Lyrene

blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum and their hybrids), and rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium virgatum Aiton). Since the establishment of blueberry breeding programs, genes from various wild blueberry