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Amanda J. Hershberger, Tracie M. Jenkins, and Carol Robacker

. gentianoides var. alabamensis (squares). Numbers within symbols indicate assigned population numbers described in Table 2 . DNA extraction protocol and quantification. DNA extraction was carried out using the E.Z.N.A. plant DNA kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Norcross

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Jeffrey M. Hamilton and Jorge M. Fonseca

-controlled greenhouse. A 50% knitted polypropylene shadecloth (Green-Tek, Inc., Edgerton, WI) was placed 2.5 m above tables. Seeds were subirrigated three times every 24 h for 5 min with water (pH 7.8; EC 0.40 dS·m −1 ). The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) status

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Joseph C. Fetter, Rebecca N. Brown, and José A. Amador

dehydrogenase activity assay ( Gong, 1997 ) adapted for microplates. The resulting extracts for soil PO 4 , NO 3 , NH 4 , and microbial activity were analyzed colorimetrically using a Bio-Tek ® (Power Wave 340) microplate reader. Soil organic matter content was

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Cui-ping Hua, Zhong-kui Xie, Zhi-jiang Wu, Yu-bao Zhang, Zhi-hong Guo, Yang Qiu, Le Wang, and Ya-jun Wang

extraction kit (EZNATM soil DNA Kit; OMEGA Bio-tek, Inc., Doravilla, GA). Each sample was composed of 0.5 g fresh soil. Extracted DNA was assayed for purity and concentration by ethidium bromide staining after 1.0% agarose gel electrophoresis, and the DNA was

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

. Final quantification of ABA and iPA were determined based on the absorbance at 405 nm using an automated microplate reader (EL800; Bio-Tek Instruments, Winooski, Vt.) and compared with corresponding standard curves for each of the hormones

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Chun-hui Shi, Xiao-qing Wang, Xue-ying Zhang, Lian-ying Shen, Jun Luo, and Yu-xing Zhang

peel tissue of pears at 10–20 DAFB for all groups. Total RNA was extracted using a plant RNA kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Guangzhou, China) in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The first cDNA strand was reverse-transcribed using a Revert Aid First

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Li Yingzhi, Cheng Yunjiang, Tao Nengguo, and Deng Xiuxin

-Acetate-EDTA (TAE)-agarose gel, cut out of the gel, and cleaned using E.Z.N.A. Gel Extraction Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Doraville, GA) following the manufacturer's protocols. The purified PCR products were cloned into the TaKaRa pMD18-T vector (TaKaRa Bio, Shiga, Japan

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Xuan Liu and Catherine Grieve

-Aldrich) using a scanning spectrophotometer (PowerWave x Select Microplate; Bio-Tek, Winooski, VT) at 340 nm, and was quantified by comparison with a known glucose standard. Phloem sap collection and analysis. The experimental protocol for phloem exudate

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Matthew Chappell, Carol Robacker, and Tracie M. Jenkins

kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Doraville, GA) and corresponding protocol were used in total genomic DNA extraction from 100 mg of frozen leaf tissue. DNA was quantified using a spectrofluorometer and 1% agarose gel with Low DNA Mass Ladder™ (Invitrogen™, Carlsbad

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Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel, and Anish Malladi

nitrogen, and total RNA was extracted using the E.Z.N.A. Plant RNA Mini Kit following manufacturer’s protocol (Omega Bio-Tek, Norcross, GA). Total RNA was eluted in 8 µL of diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water and quantified using a spectrophotometer