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Thomas M. Todaro and Imed E. Dami

. 2 ). On Fan-trained vines, all emerged shoots were manually trained vertically by tucking and positioning them between catch wires into a fan shape ( Fig. 2A–D ). All shoots and fruit (clusters) were retained in this system. Fan/VSP training involved

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Lydia F. Wessner, and Geoffrey Dervishian

386 vine plots of which 24 were sampled based on a grid pattern of every 16th vine. Treatment application Pruning systems. Two pruning systems, spur pruning and mechanical box pruning, were applied. Spur-pruned vines were manually pruned to retain a

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Zhenyong Wang and David R. Dilley

Multiple harvests are often necessary to achieve maximum yield of well-colored high-quality apples. This is true for most cultivars, and particularly for `Gala'. Multiple harvests add significantly to the cost of producing apples. We tested our hypotheses that anthocyanin production of ReTain™-treated apples may be enhanced by ethephon without overly stimulating other ripening processes and ReTain™ may promote uniform maturation of apples within and between trees by delaying maturation and ripening processes. Experiments were conducted with `Gala', `Empire', and `Jonagold' apples at the MSU CHES in 1997 and 1998 employing the rootstock/training systems research plot. Treatments were 1) ReTain™ (50g/ac.) applied 3 to 4 weeks before harvest, 2) ReTain™ followed by ethephon (3/4 pt/ac.) applied 1 to 2 weeks before harvest, 3) ethephon, and 4) control (Silwet® L-77 surfactant only). ReTain™ applied alone delayed the onset of the ethylene climacteric and red color development of `Gala' apples. ReTain™ followed by ethephon delayed the onset of the ethylene climacteric and red color development at the commercial harvest date was not significantly affected. Similar results were obtained with the `Empire' and `Jonagold'. Results with ReTain™ and ReTain™ + ethephon in 1998 on `Gala', `Empire', and `Jonagold' apples were more profound than in 1997; we attribute this to less environmental stress on the trees, which were well-irrigated in 1998. The ripening-related effects of treatments were reflected in the storability of fruit 1997 in air and particularly during CA storage where the action of ethylene in ripening can be attenuated. ReTain™ - and ReTain™ + ethephon-treated fruit were still at preclimacteric ethylene levels after 6 months in CA with excellent retention of flesh firmness and shelf-life, while ethephon and control fruit had higher ethylene levels and softened more during storage and shelf-life evaluation.

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Patsy E. Wilson, Douglas D. Archbold, Joseph G. Masabni, and S. Kaan Kurtural

hybrid cultivars such as Traminette ( Vitis spp.), a balanced pruning formula of retaining 40 buds for the first 454 g of dormant wood removed and 10 additional buds for each additional 454 g of dormant wood resulted in optimum yield and fruit

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Michael R. Evans, Giampaolo Zanin, and Todd J. Cavins

the volume of water retained by a substrate immediately after a saturating irrigation and drainage and is expressed as a percentage of total volume or weight of the substrate. A water-holding capacity of 45% to 65% (v/v) has been commonly recommended

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Neng-Iong Chan, Bruce E. Rittmann, and James Elser

below-ground portions were separated, dried at 60 °C for 48 h, and weighed. For the below-ground samples, we washed the roots with tap water in a mesh drainer that retained fine roots that broke off. Leachate was collected in all treatments every 2 to

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Antonio Pompeiano, Nicola Grossi, and Marco Volterrani

average R 2 values of 0.95. The average number of days for the entries included in the study to reach 50% green cover was 72.7. ‘Zenith’ and ‘Meyer’ exhibited the lowest color retention, retaining 50% green color at 33.9 and 37.1 Days 50 . A distinct

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David M. Butler, Gary E. Bates, and Sarah E. Eichler Inwood

aboveground cover crop biomass either retained or removed and 2) soil quality dynamics associated with these production systems during a 2-year study period. Materials and Methods Site description and establishment. The study was conducted at the University of

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Imed Dami, Said Ennahli, and David Scurlock

≈20 cm shoot-length stage (EL Stage 12; Eichhorn and Lorenz, 1977 ). Shoot positioning and CT, but not leaf pulling, were conducted at pea-sized berry stage (EL Stage 31; Eichhorn and Lorenz, 1977 ) to retain 40 (CT40) and 60 (CT60) clusters per vine

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Serafim Kastritsis, Nikolaos Ntoulas, and Panayiota Tsiotsiopoulou

Substrate selection is of major importance in ornamental potted plant production. The substrate should possess the correct physical and chemical characteristics and should drain freely while retaining the correct amount of moisture. Peat has been