Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.] plants were grown in soil infested with increasing densities of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, or M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood, root-knot nematodes. Compared to tomato plants grown in soil with the same nematode numbers and species, lisianthus had less severe root symptoms, suffered less damage, and resulted in lower nematode multiplication rates. Lisianthus was a better host for M. javanica than for M. incognita, and a poor host for M. hapla. Lisianthus shoot weights were significantly reduced after inoculation with M. javanica or M. hapla, but not after M. incognita inoculation. The number of flowers produced per lisianthus plant was reduced by all three nematode species. The results show that the root-knot nematode species that are most common in California may cause significant damage in the cut-flower production of lisianthus.
Martin Schochow, Steven A. Tjosvold, and Antoon T. Ploeg
J. A. Thies and A. Levi
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica) cause severe damage to watermelon and resistance has not been identified in any watermelon cultivar. In greenhouse tests, we evaluated 265 U.S. plant introductions (PIs) for nematode resistance (based on root galling and nematode reproduction), and identified 22 PIs of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides as moderately resistant to M. arenaria race 1. In subsequent tests, these 22 PIs exhibited low to moderate resistance to M. incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2. Three watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) cultivars (Charleston Gray, Crimson Sweet, and Dixie Lee), three C. colocynthis PIs, and four C. lanatus var. citroides PIs, all previously shown to be susceptible to M. arenaria race 1, were susceptible to M. incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2. The C. lanatus var. citroides PIs that are most resistant to both M. incognita and M. arenaria should be useful sources of resistance for developing root-knot nematode resistant watermelon cultivars.
J.C. Cervantes-Flores, G.C. Yencho, and E.L. Davis
Five sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars (`Beauregard', `Excel', `Jewel', `Hernandez', and `Porto Rico') were evaluated for resistance to three root-knot nematode species: Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood (race 2), M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood (race 3), and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood. Resistance screening efficiency was assessed in both 400-cm3 square pots and 150-cm3 Conetainers™. Nematode infection was assessed as the percentage of root system galled, percentage of root system necrosis, and the number of nematode eggs produced per gram of root tissue. Means of these dependent variables were not different (P ≤ 0.05) between container types, with Conetainers™ being more efficient to use. Root necrosis was not related to nematode infection, but was significant among cultivars (P = 0.0005). The resistance responses of the cultivars differed depending on the nematode species. All five cultivars were resistant to M. arenaria race 2. `Hernandez', `Excel', and `Jewel' were also resistant to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica.
Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies
Greenhouse tests were conducted to compare the levels of resistance to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] exhibited by recently released Capsicum chinense Jacq. Scotch Bonnet-type germplasm lines PA-353, PA-398, and PA-426 to the levels of resistance exhibited by C. annuum L. `Carolina Cayenne' and `Mississippi Nemaheart'; to determine the inheritance of the resistance in C. chinense germplasm line PA-426; and to determine the genetic relationship between the resistances exhibited by C. chinense germplasm line PA-426 and C. annuum `Carolina Cayenne'. The results of a replicated test indicated that the level of resistances exhibited by the resistant released C. chinense germplasm lines is equal to the level of resistances exhibited by the resistant C. annuum cultivars. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the cross PA-426 × PA-350 (a susceptible Habanero-type C. chinense cultigen) indicated that the resistance in C. chinense is conditioned by a single dominant gene. The results of an allelism test indicated that this dominant gene is allelic to the dominant gene that conditions much of the southern root-knot nematode resistance in the C. annuum `Carolina Cayenne'. The ease and reliability of evaluating plants for resistance to root-knot nematode and the availability of a simply inherited source of outstanding resistance makes breeding for southern root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in C. chinense breeding programs.
Richard L. Fery, Philip D. Dukes, and Judy A. Thies
A series of greenhouse and field studies was conducted over 9 years to characterize three new sources of resistance in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] and to determine if the resistances are conditioned by genes allelic to the Rk root-knot nematode resistance gene in `Mississippi Silver'. Three plant introductions (PI), PI 441917, PI 441920, and PI 468104, were evaluated for reaction to M. incognita in four greenhouse tests, and in every test each PI exhibited less galling, egg mass formation, or egg production than `Mississippi Silver'. F2 populations of the crosses between `Mississippi Silver' and each of the three resistant PIs were also evaluated for root-knot nematode resistance in a greenhouse test. None of the F2 populations segregated for resistance, indicating that PI 441917, PI 441920, and PI 468104 each has a gene conditioning resistance that is allelic to the Rk gene in `Mississippi Silver'. Our observations on the superior levels of resistances exhibited by PI 441917, PI 441920, and PI 468104 suggest that the allele at the Rk locus in these lines may not be the Rk allele, but one or more alleles that condition a superior, dominant-type resistance. The availability of additional dominant alleles would broaden the genetic base for root-knot nematode resistance in cowpea.
Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies
Greenhouse experiments determined the inheritance of resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1] in Capsicum chinense Jacq. germplasm lines PA-353 and PA-426. Evaluation of parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations of the crosses PA-353 × PA-350 and PA-426 × PA-350 (PA-350 is a susceptible cultigen) indicated that resistance in both C. chinense germplasm lines was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Evaluation of the F1 × resistant parent backcross populations in the cytoplasm of their respective resistant and susceptible parents indicated that the cytoplasm of the resistant parent is not needed for full expression of resistance. Allelism tests indicated that the dominant resistance gene in both PA-353 and PA-426 is allelic to a resistance gene in C. annuum L. `Carolina Cayenne'. However, these allelism tests did not demonstrate conclusively that the M. arenaria race 1 resistance gene in C. chinense is the N gene that conditions resistance to the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in C. annuum. The ease and reliability of evaluating plants for resistance to root-knot nematodes and the availability of simply inherited sources of resistance makes breeding for peanut root-knot nematode resistance a viable objective in C. chinense breeding programs.
Judy A. Thies, Richard F. Davis, John D. Mueller, Richard L. Fery, David B. Langston, and Gilbert Miller
Root-knot nematode-resistant `Charleston Belle' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) and metam sodium treatment were evaluated for managing the southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White] in fall-cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). `Charleston Belle' and its susceptible recurrent parent, `Keystone Resistant Giant', were planted as spring crops at Blackville, S.C., and Tifton, Ga. `Charleston Belle' exhibited high resistance and `Keystone Resistant Giant' was susceptible at both locations. After termination of the bell pepper crop, one-half of the plots were treated with metam sodium delivered through the drip irrigation system. Cucumber yields and numbers of fruit were highest for cucumber grown in plots treated with metam sodium following either `Charleston Belle' or `Keystone Resistant Giant'; however, root gall severity and numbers of M. incognita eggs in the roots were lowest for cucumber grown in plots treated with metam sodium following `Charleston Belle'. Conversely, root gall severity and nematode reproduction were highest for cucumber grown in plots following `Keystone Resistant Giant' without metam sodium treatment. Application of metam sodium through the drip irrigation system following a spring crop of root-knot nematode-resistant bell pepper should reduce severity of root galling and reproduction of M. incognita as well as increase fruit yield of fall-cropped cucumber.
Laurie E. Boyden* and Peter Cousins
Development of rootstocks resistant to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) is a priority in grape breeding. The N allele, present in Harmony and Freedom rootstocks, confers resistance to N-avirulent strains of Meloidogyne. Extensive planting of rootstocks containing N has led to the development of N-virulent nematode strains, prompting a search for new resistance alleles. A seedling population derived from Vitis nesbittiana Comeaux was evaluated to investigate the genetic control of nematode resistance in this species. Hybridization with easily propagated rootstock selections will be required to utilize nematode resistance found in V. nesbittiana, a native of Mexico. The female parent of the population was 161-49C, a V. riparia × V. berlandieri hybrid rootstock. 161-49C does not contribute nematode resistance to its progeny. The male parent was V. nesbittiana DVIT 2236.12, an accession held in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm system. Nematode resistance of the 161-49C × V. nesbittiana DVIT 2236.12 population was assessed in greenhouse pot culture. Seedling roots were stained in an eosin-Y solution six weeks after inoculation with 1500 N-virulent M. arenaria juveniles. Resistance classes of seedlings were determined by assessing the degree of galling and number of egg masses per root system. Segregation in the seedling population was consistent with a 1:1 ratio of resistance to susceptibility, indicating that the V. nesbittiana accession is heterozygous for a dominant allele conferring resistance to N-virulent root-knot nematodes. The genetic relationship between this allele and the N allele has yet to be determined.
Mwamburi Mcharo*, Don Labonte, Chris Clark, and Mary Hoy
Using two sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) F1 populations from diverse environments we investigated the AFLP marker profiles of the genotypes for association studies between the molecular markers and southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance expression. Population one consisted of 51 half-sib genotypes developed at the Louisiana State Univ. AgCenter. The second population consisted of 51 full-sibs developed by the East African and International Potato Center sweetpotato breeding programs. Results for nematode resistance expression indicate a binomial distribution among the genotypes. Using analysis of molecular variance, logistic regression and discriminant analysis, AFLP markers that are most influential with respect to the phenotypic trait expression were selected for both populations. A comparative analysis of the power of models from the two statistical models for southern root-knot nematode resistance class prediction was also done. The diversity and possible universal similarity of influential markers between the two populations and the expected impact in sweetpotato breeding programs will be discussed.
A.G. Hunter, O.L. Chambliss, and J.C. Williams
Four southernpea (cowpea) [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivars representing various combinations of resistance and susceptibility to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) and southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood] were used to determine effectiveness of simultaneous screening of plants for resistance to both pathogens. Plants were inoculated with both pathogens simultaneously, each pathogen separately, or left uninoculated as controls. The resistance classification of the cultivars based on treatments with only one pathogen was not different from that based on the treatment with both pathogens. Virus × nematode interaction was not a significant source of variation in BlCMV symptoms and root-knot nematode galls. Simultaneous screening for both pathogens in southernpeas appears to be a feasible option.