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Kimberly Shearer and Thomas G. Ranney

dogwoods (DW) comprising subgenus Arctocrania , and the cornelian cherries (CC) comprising subgenus Cornus . Polyploidy, also referred to as whole genome duplication, has played a significant role in the evolution and diversification of angiosperms

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Ryan N. Contreras and Luigi Meneghelli

based on Fisher’s least significant difference (α = 0.05). Discussion We successfully induced higher level polyploidy in ‘Otto Luyken’ and ‘Schipkaensis’ cherrylaurels using two methods of in vitro exposure of shoots to oryzalin. Our treatments spanned a

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Kelly M. Oates, Thomas G. Ranney, Darren H. Touchell, and Zenaida Viloria

C. grandiflora ‘Morning Calm’ that were similar to ‘Chastity’ ( Table 1 ). Induced polyploidy is known to cause enlarged tissues in many crops ( Ranney, 2006 ), and the increase in leaf size of ‘Chastity’ could be associated with the higher ploidy

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James W. Olmstead, Hilda Patricia Rodríguez Armenta, and Paul M. Lyrene

-sectional hybrids in blueberry breeding Intl. J. Fruit Sci. 12 269 275 Lyrene, P.M. Brooks, S.J. 1995 Use of sparkleberry in breeding highbush blueberry cultivars J. Small Fruit Viticult. 3 29 38 Lyrene, P.M. Vorsa, N. Ballington, J.R. 2003 Polyploidy and sexual

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Hirotoshi Tsuda, Hisato Kunitake, Mai Yamasaki, Haruki Komatsu, and Katsunori Yoshioka

275 Lyrene, P.M. Vorsa, N. Ballington, J.R. 2003 Polyploidy and sexual polyploidization in the genus Vaccinium Euphytica 133 27 36 Murashige, T. Skoog, F. 1962 A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures Physiol

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William G. Hembree, Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch, and Brian E. Jackson

section ( Deutzia / Mesodeutzia ), thus reducing the number of sections to two. Polyploidy has had an important role in the evolution and divergence of angiosperms ( Soltis et al., 2015 ; Wendel, 2015 ). Repeated cycles of whole genome duplication

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

Anderss. produces viable seed in four USDA hardiness zones J. Environ. Hort. 17 137 140 Norrmann, G.A. Quarin, C.L. 1987 Permanent odd polyploidy in a grass ( Andropogon ternatus ) Genome 29 340 344 Norrmann, G.A. Keeler, K.H. 2003 Cytotypes of Andropogon

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William G. Hembree, Thomas G. Ranney, Brian E. Jackson, and Mark Weathington

, L. 1988 A cytological study of Camellia reticulata and its closely related species in Yunnan, China Amer. Camellia Yrbk. 1988 72 87 Laport, R.G. Ng, J. 2017 Out of one, many: The biodiversity considerations of polyploidy Amer. J. Bot. 104 8 1124

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Carolyn J. DeBuse, Douglas V. Shaw, and Theodore M. DeJong

Controlled pollinations were made using 20 elite selections from the University of California, Davis, Prunus domestica (european plum) breeding program as parents. These parents were used to generate 11 self-pollinated progenies with an inbreeding coefficient (F) of 0.5, 10 full-sibling progenies (F = 0.25), and 11 progenies from among nonrelated parents (F = 0). Seven additional progenies were chosen as a random-mating control set within the parental group; progenies in the control set had accumulated a range of current inbreeding coefficients (average F = 0.23) over two to five generations with intervening cycles of selection. Survival percentages were 85, 82, and 74 for the full-sib progeny, control set progeny, and selfed progeny, respectively, relative to nonrelated progeny. Two months after germination the percent decrease in the growth trait means for the selfed progeny compared to the nonrelated progeny ranged from 14% to 30% whereas growth trait means for full-sib progeny decreased from 1% to 9% compared to nonrelated progeny. The percent decrease for growth trait means of the selfed progeny after completing one season of growth in the field (10 months) was similar to that observed after 2 months, ranging from 14% to 28% compared to nonrelated progeny, whereas the decrease in full-sib progeny trait means was somewhat greater, ranging from 6% to 20%. Regression analysis of all growth traits on current-generation rates of inbreeding indicated a significant negative linear relationship (P = 0.0011 to 0.0232). No significant relationships were found between accumulated Fs and growth trait means of the control set progenies and the nonrelated progenies after 2 months in the greenhouse or one season growing in the field, suggesting that selection between breeding cycles decreased inbreeding depression.

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Iwao Oiyama and Shozo Kobayashi

Seedlings from some small seeds of diploid × diploid crosses using `Miyauchi iyokan' (Citrus iyo Hort. ex Tanaka) as the seed parent were found to be pentaploid (2n = 5x = 45). The growth of pentaploid seedlings was extremely weak on their own roots, but was much more vigorous when micrografted on seedlings of tetraploid trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. Diploid `Miyauchi iyokan' produced hexaploid seedlings from small seeds in addition to triploid and tetraploid seedlings from normal seeds when crossed with tetraploid `Funadoko' (C. funadoko Hort. ex Y. Tanaka) and `Trovita' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. Based on this phenomenon, the origin of pentaploids is discussed.