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He Li, Matthew Chappell, and Donglin Zhang

outstanding flowering native species ( Dirr, 2009 ; Jaynes, 1988 ). Its attractive, lustrous green foliage; showy inflorescences; and variations in morphological traits have made mountain laurel a valuable ornamental shrub in the nursery and landscape

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

Soltis, 2012 ). Genome size variation can also be used by plant breeders to identify parents for wide hybrids among parent taxa. Interspecific hybrids have been shown to have genome sizes intermediate between their parents in other woody ornamentals such

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Aikaterini N. Martini and Maria Papafotiou

Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss ( Statice monopetala L., Plumbaginaceae) is a small, silvery, blue-green evergreen perennial shrub with much-branched, leafy stems that is native to coastal sands and salt marshes in southern Greece and other

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Ann L. Hild, E.B. Fish, and D.L. Morgan

For multi-stemmed shrubs, especially those with fine foliage, obtaining measures of leaf area or density of foliage and twigs within the crown may be both difficult and time-consuming. However, this measure may be an indication of the ornamental quality of a species. A method of photographic analysis was developed to perform repeated measures within the crown of woody shrubs. Slides of 5 species of arid land woody shrubs were analyzed by use of a Visual Image Processor system. This digital imaging technique may be applied where comparative measures over time for individual plants is useful. Comparisons were made of slides taken in the fall of 1989 and the spring and fall of 1990. The use Of slides limited handling or removal of any portion of the plants. Initial care in slide production and continuity of photographic techniques permits consistent results between measurement dates. This computerized method al lows comparative analysis of the growth and “fullness” of plant crowns.

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Qiang Liu, Youping Sun, James Altland, and Genhua Niu

). Tatarian dogwood is a popular ornamental shrub with white fruits, creamy-white flowers, and red stems in fall through late winter ( Dirr, 2009 ). It is widely used in residential landscape, public parks, and botanical gardens. The morphological and

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J. J. Knabke and H. G. Hancock

Talstar 10WP insecticide/Miticide (bifenthrin) is used for the control of a broad spectrum of economic pests on ornamentals. Over 100 species of greenhouse and field–grown plants, trees and shrubs have been shown to exhibit no phytotoxic response to the wettable powder formulation. Research efforts with alternative bifenthrin, formulations, which exhibit equivalent pest efficacy and lack of phytotoxicity, may also provide unique application opportunities.

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Margaret R. Pooler* and Thomas S. Elias

The neotropical shrub Hamelia patens Jacq. has been cultivated as an ornamental in the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa for many years, although only in limited numbers and as a minor element in the trade. In recent years, other taxa of Hamelia have been grown and evaluated as new flowering shrubs. The relatively recent introduction of a superior ornamental species of Hamelia called the “African firebush” has propelled this genus to greater prominence as an excellent small flowering shrub or container plant, especially throughout the southeastern United States and in other countries such as South Africa. Initially, this firebush was sold as an African plant. Data from field studies, herbarium specimens, and from DNA analysis of several taxa and populations of Hamelia show that the African firebush in southern Florida may have originated from populations of Hamelia patens var. glabra native to southern Mexico. The original plants were taken to Europe, southern Africa, and southeastern Asia probably in the mid to late 1800s and then recently re-introduced to New World markets as a new African ornamental plant.

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Thomas S. Elias and Margaret R. Pooler

The neotropical shrub Hamelia patens Jacq. has been cultivated as an ornamental in the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa for many years, although only in limited numbers and as a minor element in the trade. Recently, other taxa of Hamelia have been grown and evaluated as new flowering shrubs. The relatively recent introduction of a superior ornamental taxon of Hamelia, called the african firebush, has propelled this genus to greater prominence as an excellent small flowering shrub or container plant, especially throughout the southeastern United States and in other countries such as South Africa. Initially, this firebush was sold as an African plant. Data from field studies, herbarium specimens, and from DNA analysis of several taxa and populations of Hamelia show that the african firebush in southern Florida may have originated from populations of H. patens var. glabra native to southern Mexico. The original plants were taken to Europe, southern Africa, and southeastern Asia probably in the middle to late 1800s and then recently reintroduced to New World markets as a new African ornamental plant.

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William Klingeman, Charles Hall, and Beth Babbit

Though genetically modified (GM) ornamental cut flowers are already available commercially, U.S. academics and Green Industry growers have not assessed consumer perception about GM ornamental plants for landscape use. Because we must make inferences from studies of GM foods, we risk misunderstanding and alienating stakeholders and clients. If we misjudge the end-user, we jeopardize the market for future GM ornamental plant introductions. To address this gap, we surveyed Tennessee Master Gardener Volunteers in 2004. Respondents (n = 607) revealed that concern and belief about GM ornamental plants parallel U.S. expectation about GM foods. Average Master Gardener volunteer responses predict that GM ornamental plants would provide only slight benefits to both the environment and human health once used in the landscape. Compared with non-GM plants, GM ornamental plants are expected to be about the same or less invasive in the landscape. While all types of GM ornamental plants were expected to provide slight benefits, plant types were perceived differently with male respondents expecting perennials to yield the most environmental benefits and females indicating grasses and turf. Men and women also differed in their relative acceptance of GM ornamental plants, if genes were added from different types of organisms to achieve a genetic transformation of an ornamental shrub. Our results suggest that academic outreach and Green Industry marketing to promote new GM plant products should emphasize attributes of benefit, rather than GM transformation processes. Regardless, about 73% of TN Master Gardener respondents reported interest in buying GM ornamental plants if sold commercially, but the majority advocated a requirement for GM plant product labeling at point-of-sale.

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Leiah M. Butler, William F. Hayslett, and Robert Harrison

A 24-month experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading levels on the foliage color changes in Fire Power Nandinas. This popular ornamental shrub is the dwarf form of the Heavenly Bamboo, Nandina domestica. It originated in New Zealand, and has vivid green leaf color in the spring and summer months that changes to a fluorescent red as winter approaches. In this experiment light was limited by covering the plots with black woven shadecloth of 43% and 78% shade, while allowing the control plots to receive full sunlight. Fifteen shrubs from each plot were randomly selected and 10 leaves per plant in each treatment were taken at 28-day intervals. The leaf color was recorded using a camera attached to a microscope. The results from this study indicate that changes in leaf color may be affected by the change of the seasons. The level of light/shade that the plants receive may also affect leaf color. The control group turned a bright fluorescent red, the 43% shade turned a deep red, and the 78% shade remained a deep green with few leaves turning red. Based on the different hues observed, this research indicates that limiting light has a direct effect on leaf color in this species. The correlation between the amount of sunlight received and the season of the year are the two factors that determine the degree of color change in this ornamental shrub.