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Esmaeil Fallahi

.). Fruit: Growth, nutrition, and quality. WFL Publisher (Science & Technology), Helsinki, Finland Chaplin, M.H. Dixon, A.R. 1974 A method for analysis of plant tissue by direct reading spark emission spectroscopy Appl. Spectrosc. 28 5 8 Chun, I.J. Fallahi

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Elizabeth Baldwin, Jinhe Bai, Anne Plotto, John Manthey, Smita Raithore, Sophie Deterre, Wei Zhao, Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Philip A. Stansly, and James A. Tansey

.R. Rouseff, R.L. 2008 Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 48 681 695 Plotto, A. Baldwin, E.A. Bai, J. Manthey, J. Raithore, S. Deterre, S. Zhao, W. 2017 Effect of vector control and foliar nutrition on the quality of orange

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Monica Ozores-Hampton, Eric Simonne, Fritz Roka, Kelly Morgan, Steven Sargent, Crystal Snodgrass, and Eugene McAvoy

-irrigated tomato on plant nutritional status, marketable yield and distribution, and post-harvest quality; and 2) determine the economically optimal rate of N fertilization and analyze the sensitivity of N application rates to market conditions, specifically the

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Anwar A. Hamama, and Muddappa Rangappa

Lack of adequate processing facilities has been a major hindrance in the adoption of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) as an alternative oilseed crop in the southern United States. Therefore, development of alternative uses could be instrumental in facilitating adoption of canola by American farmers. We evaluated chemical composition of greens from four canola cultivars (`Dixie', `Falcon', `HN120-91', and `Jetton') grown during 1995-96 and 1996-97 at Petersburg, Va., to determine their potential as a food and feed source. The results indicated potential yield of ≈11 t·ha-1 of fresh greens and ≈1 t·ha-1 of dry matter. The canola greens contained 3.4% oil and 30.6% protein on a dry weight basis. Canola greens contained 0.52%, 4.14%, 0.35%, 1.59%, and 0.20% (dry weight basis) of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, respectively. Canola greens also contained 0.94, 2.02, 5.47, 14.65, 28.61, 0.74, and 31.92 (mg/100 g dry weight basis) of sulfur, boron, zinc, manganese, iron, copper, and aluminum, respectively. The oil in canola greens contained 18.79%, 81.14%, 15.36%, and 65.78% saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Based on these values, canola greens compared favorably with mustard and turnip greens.

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James B. Magee

Many concepts of the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables generally accepted in the past, in the light of more knowledge, today are considered “misconceptions.” For example, the tomato, once considered poisonous, then shown edible, later proved to be a “good” food and a valuable source of minerals and vitamin C, today shows the potential for significant anti-cancer activity. Results of a 6-year study of the dietary habits of 47,000 men reported up to a 45% reduction in the incidence of prostate cancer of those who ate 10 or more servings per week of tomato-based products. Other misconceptions to be discussed include nightshade vegetables and arthritis, apples after meals to clean the teeth and gums, and “if a little is good for you, a lot must be better.” Today's nutritional ideas about many fruits and vegetables may become tomorrow's misconceptions as our knowledge of the composition (e.g., phytochemicals) of fruits and vegetables increases. Examples of this are include the use of muscadine pomace and the nutritive value of strawberries.

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S. Gamiely, W.M. Randle, H.A. Mills, D.A. Smittle, and G.I. Banna

Nitrogen applied as NH4-N or NO3-N (75 mg·liter-1) affected onion (AIlium cepa L.) plant growth when grown in solution culture. Nitrate alone or in combination with NH4-N increased leaf fresh and dry weight, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight, and bulb dry weight when compared to growth with NH4-N as the sole N source. Bulb fresh weight was highest with an NH4-N: NO3-N ratio between 1:3 and 3:1. Maximum leaf fresh weight was not necessary to produce maximum bulb fresh weight when onions were subjected to different N-form ratios. Precocious bulbing resulted when NH4-N was the sole N source; however, high bulbing ratios early in plant development were not correlated with final bulb fresh weight. Nitrogen form also influenced water uptake and pungency, as measured by enzymatically developed pyruvate concentration, but did not affect bulb sugar concentration.

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Mongi Zekri

Since the environmental conditions and cultural practices are unique in southwest Florida, a study was performed to determine the horticultural adaptability and performance of `Valencia' orange trees on four commercial rootstocks grown in a high-density planting. The trees were planted in 1991 on a flatwoods soil in a commercial grove at a density of 627 trees/ha. Leaf mineral concentration, growth, and fruit production and quality were measured 4 and 7 years after planting. Compared to Florida citrus leaf standards, leaf mineral concentration values were within the optimum to the high range. Yield efficiency expressed as kilograms of solids per cubed meter of canopy and juice quality in terms of juice content, soluble solids concentration, and kilograms of solids per box increased with tree age. Tree and fruit size were the highest for Volkamer lemon (Volk) and the lowest for Cleopatra mandarin (Cleo). Fruit yield was the highest for Volk. However, yield expressed in kilograms of solids per hectare was not significantly different between Volk and `Swingle' citrumelo (Swi) due to the higher solids per box for Swi. Yield efficiency was also higher for Swi than for Volk. Juice content and soluble solids in the fruit were higher for Swi and Cleo than for the lemon rootstocks. Financial analysis showed that at high-density planting, trees on Swi were the most profitable. On noncalcareous flatwoods soil, Swi is the best suited rootstock for high-density planting.

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Jane E. Lancaster, Julie Farrant, and Martin L. Shaw

Three onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars, `Southport White Globe', `Grano', and `Pukekohe Longkeeper' were grown at low to high S (at 0.5, 1.8, 3.0 or 4.0 meq·L-1) in hydroponic culture. Differential solvent extractions of bulbs were used to isolate quantitatively cell contents, cell wall proteins, and cell wall residue. The weight of the cell fractions, their S content, and the S content of intact bulbs were determined. Bulb characteristics of fresh weight (FW), firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), and soluble sugars were also determined. For all three cultivars, bulb FW increased with S from 0.5 to 4.0 meq·L-1. Sulfur had a significant effect on bulb firmness. Onion bulbs grown with S at 0.5 meq·L-1, the lowest S concentration, were significantly softer than onion bulbs grown at the highest concentration of 4.0 meq·L-1. Varying the S supply had a major effect on dry weight (DW) allocation to the cell wall residue. Bulbs of all three cultivars grown at the lowest S had significantly less DW in the cell walls compared to S at 3.0 or 4.0 meq·L-1. In contrast to the effect of S supply on DW allocation, varying S supply had no effect on total bulb S, free SO4 -2, and on the S content of the cell contents and the cell wall residue and only a minor effect on cell wall proteins. There was no significant effect of S supply on either SSC or soluble sugars. At low S nutrition, which is limiting to the growth of onion bulbs, cell wall deposition is reduced, with a consequent decrease in bulb firmness. The S composition of the cellular components is maintained at the expense of bulb growth.

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D. Pluda, H.D. Rabinowitch, and U. Kafkafi

The effect of fertigation with N-NO3 at 3, 6, or 12 mmol·liter-1, and 0, 3, or 6 dS·m-1 chloride ions on fruit quality of three pepino dulce selections was studied. Genotypes varied considerably in their response to mineral treatments in most quality characteristics. Variation in fruit size was greatly reduced when clusters were thinned to three fruit. Increasing chloride concentration in the nutrient soltuion reduced fruit size significantly and ascorbic acid concentration relative to the control, but fruit shape was not affected. Increases in NaCl salt, but not N concentration, resulted in significantly higher soluble solids concentration (SSC) and firmness in all three genotypes. Electrical conductivity, acidity, and pH were significantly affected by the two mineral treatments in the first trial, but remained unchanged in the second season. Fruit firmness, SSC, and acidity declined by 12% to 30%, whereas ascorbic acid content increased during 14 days storage at room temperature. These changes depended on genotype and environment during fruit growth and development. Organoleptic ratings were highest in salt-treated plants. Fruit quality of pepino dulce may be manipulated by crop management, thus improving its acceptability in Western markets.