The impending release of a new blackberry cultivar and a new grape cultivar by the University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment station will be discussed. The blackberry, tested as A-1536, is an erect, thornless type ripening two weeks before 'Navaho'. It produces very firm, highly flavored fruit similar to 'Navaho'. The grape, tested as A-1335, is a blue-seeded juice grape with good adaptation to areas with high summer temperatures where 'Concord' does not ripen evenly. Fresh fruit and processed juice quality has been rated equal to or better than 'Concord' juice for quality attributes.
J.N. Moore, John R. Clark, and Justin R. Morris
Creighton L. Gupton and Barbara J. Smith
Eight cultivars, including five recent releases, five selections from the Florida AES, and 16 selections from the Georgia AES were planted in the muscadine germplasm working collection at McNeil, Miss., in 1992. All cultivars and one replication of the selections were evaluated in 1997. None of the new cultivars yielded as much as `Fry', the standard fresh fruit cultivar. The percent dry picking scar of `Dixie' and `Fry' was low. `Tara', `Polyanna', and `Fry' produced the largest berries. Percent soluble solids was lowest in `Fry', `Nesbitt', and `Alachua' but highest in `Dixie' berries. `Fry', `Alachua', and `Polyanna' had the lowest and the other cultivars did not differ in number of seed per berry. One selection, 33-1-4, appeared to have the qualities of a potential cultivar. Incidence and severity of berry rots were generally low.
There is an increased interest in late-ripening blueberry cultivars in New Zealand and other aspects the growers are looking for in a new cultivar are late flowering to overcome early spring frost, high yield, and adaptability to medium- to low
D. Scott NeSmith
A new southern highbush blueberry cultivar named `Rebel' was released in 2005 by The University of Georgia. It is a very early season cultivar with large fruit having a medium to light blue color, and a small, dry picking scar. `Rebel' berry firmness is good, while flavor is only average. The new cultivar flowers 3 to 4 days before `Star' and ripens 6 to 9 days before `Star' in south and middle Georgia. `Rebel' plants are highly vigorous, very precocious and have a spreading bush habit with a medium crown. Yield has been similar to or greater than `Star' in south Georgia. Leafing has been excellent, even following mild winters. Rebel has an estimated chill requirement of 400 to 450 hours (<7 °C). Propagation is very easily accomplished using softwood cuttings. Plants of `Rebel' are self-fertile to a degree, but should be planted with other southern highbush blueberry cultivars with a similar time of bloom for cross-pollination (`Emerald' and `Star' suggested). `Rebel' is new, so planting on a trial basis is recommended. `Rebel' requires a license to propagate. For licensing information and/or a list of licensed propagators, contact the Georgia Seed Development Commission, 2420 S. Milledge Avenue, Athens, GA 30606; or visit their web-site at www.gsdc.com.
D. Scott NeSmith, Arlen D. Draper, and James M. Spiers
Released in 2004 by the University of Georgia and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, `Vernon' is an early season rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade), having large fruit size, good yields and excellent plant vigor. `Vernon', tested as T-584, was selected in 1990 at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Ga. from a cross of T-23 × T-260. `Vernon' fruit ripens early with the cultivar Climax in south Georgia, and few days before `Premier'; however, `Vernon' flowers 5 to 10 days after the standard cultivars. On average over a 6 year period, `Vernon' yielded 5.8 kg/plant per season, compared to 3.1 and 4.5 kg/plant for `Climax' and `Premier', respectively. Berry stem scar, color, firmness, and flavor of the new cultivar are good to excellent. Berry size of `Vernon' is considerably large, averaging 2.05 g/berry over 4 locations in 2003, compared to only an average weight of 1.56 g/berry for `Climax'. `Vernon' berries are firmer than `Premier'. Propagation of the new cultivar is easily accomplished from softwood cuttings. Chill hour requirement is estimated to be in the range of 500 to 550 hours (<7 °C). `Vernon' should be planted with other rabbiteye blueberry cultivars with a similar time of bloom to provide optimum pollination. Propagation rights are controlled by Georgia Seed Development Commission, 2420 S. Milledge Avenue, Athens, GA 30606 (for more information go to www.gsdc.com).
D. Scott NeSmith and Arlen D. Draper
A new southern highbush blueberry cultivar named `Camellia' was released in 2005 by The University of Georgia and the USDA–ARS. `Camellia' is a hybrid containing mostly Vaccinium corymbosum and a small amount of V. darrowi. The new cultivar was selected in 1996 at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Ga. from a cross of MS-122 × MS-6, and was tested as TH-621 in plantings at Alapaha, Ga. beginning in 1998. `Camellia' has an estimated chill requirement of 450 to 500 hours (<7 °C). It is an early- to mid-season cultivar, having berries that are large, with a very light blue color, and a small, dry picking scar. Berry firmness is good and flavor is very good. `Camellia' flowers 5 to 8 days after `Star' and `O'Neal' in south Georgia, and ripens 4 to 9 days after `Star', and with `O'Neal'. Plants are highly vigorous, with strong cane growth and an open, upright bush habit and a narrow crown. Yields have been similar to `Star' and greater than `O'Neal'. `Camellia' should be planted with other southern highbush blueberry cultivars with a similar time of bloom for cross-pollination (`Star' and `O'Neal' suggested). It is recommended on a trial basis at this time. `Camellia' requires a license to propagate. For licensing information and/or a list of licensed propagators, contact the Georgia Seed Development Commission, 2420 S. Milledge Avenue, Athens, GA 30606; or visit their website at www.gsdc.com.
Feng-yang Yu, Yue-e Xiao, Lin Cheng, Shu-cheng Feng, and Lei-lei Zhang
( Goldblatt and Manning, 2008 ). There are ≈70,000 known Iris cultivars, and more than 1000 new cultivars are produced by selection and hybridization every year ( Hu and Xiao, 2012 ). Few of those cultivars bloom in early spring (late March to mid-April in
Henry W. Hogmire and Stephen S. Miller
As part of a regional NE-183 project (Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars), 23 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars were evaluated for arthropod pest susceptibility. Incidence or injury data were collected from six foliage and eight fruit pests under field conditions over a four year period (2000–03). Cultivars were ranked based on susceptibility (least to most) to each pest, and rankings were summed for members of the foliage and fruit pest group to develop a susceptibility rating for foliage, fruit and all pests combined. Cultivars with lowest susceptibility to foliage pests included `GoldRush' and `Pioneer Mac', whereas `Yataka' and `Cameo' were most susceptible. For fruit pests, susceptibility was lowest for `Pristine' and `Sunrise', and highest for `Cameo', `Fuji Red Sport #2', and `Gala Supreme'. When both foliage and fruit pests were combined, susceptibility was lowest for `Sunrise' and `Pioneer Mac', and highest for `Cameo'. Some increasingly popular cultivars had high levels of injury from a few pests, including plum curculio and apple maggot on `Ginger Gold', codling moth and oriental fruit moth on `Cameo', and japanese beetle, plum curculio and apple maggot on `Honeycrisp'. A positive and significant correlation was found between day of harvest and percent fruit injury from codling moth/oriental fruit moth and tufted apple bud moth/redbanded leafroller, with later maturing cultivars experiencing higher injury levels presumably due to more exposure to later generations of these pests. Differences among cultivars in pest incidence and injury can be used by growers to improve pest management through cultivar selection, or by making modifications in control programs based on cultivar susceptibility.
J.R. Clark and J.N. Moore
Two new seedless grape cultivars were released in 1999 from the grape breeding program at the Univ. of Arkansas. `Jupiter' is the fifth release from the program. `Jupiter' is blue-fruited, has large berries, non-slipskin texture, and a mild muscat flavor. Yields of `Jupiter' were very good in replicated trials, and hardiness is also adequate for production in all areas of the South. `Jupiter' ripens 5 days later than `Venus', but earlier than `Mars' or `Reliance'. `Neptune' is the sixth release and first white-fruited cultivar from the program. It has medium-sized berries, large clusters, non-slipskin texture, and a mild, fruity flavor. Yields of `Neptune' were moderate in replicated trials. `Neptune' ripens 17 days later than `Venus' and 3 days earlier than `Mars'. Both cultivars were developed and evaluated with a commercial cultural system including routine fungicide applications, and fungicides will be required to reliably produce these cultivars. Neither of these cultivars has been tested in a Pierce's Disease region of the United States, and it is not anticipated that either will have resistance to this disease.
Dan E. Parfitt, Craig E. Kallsen, and Joe Maranto
`Lost Hills' is a new female pistachio cultivar that is being released as a potential replacement for `Kerman', the industry standard female cultivar. `Lost Hills' produced substantially higher percentages of split, edible nuts than `Kerman' in 2003 when split percentages for `Kerman' were very poor due to reduced winter chilling, a condition that is likely to be more frequent in the future. Nut size for `Lost Hills' is larger than for `Kerman'. Harvest date is 2–4 weeks earlier than `Kerman', which will permit growers to extend their harvest period and better utilize their harvesting equipment and personnel. Earlier harvest may reduce disease in the northern production areas of California by permitting an earlier harvest before fall rains, as well as reducing navel orangeworm infestations. The cultivar requires less chilling than `Kerman', which improves uniformity of foliation, bloom, nut set, nut fill, and uniformity of nut maturity at harvest in years with insufficient chilling for `Kerman'. This cultivar could increase grower profits by more than 20% above that received for `Kerman'.