The performance of a reactor designed to convert volatile hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water by a combination of surface chemistry and UV radiation was tested under conditions relevant to horticulture. Air containing 65 to 1100 nL·L–1 ethylene gas passed through a bed of catalyst crystals at a rate of 0.1 to 2.0 L·min–1. The catalyst bed consisted of 14 g of zirconia-titania particles, 0.50 to 0.75 mm in size, that occupied the space between a 4-W UV lamp and a stainless-steel housing. Dew-point temperatures of the air passing through the reactor ranged from 5 to 22°C and internal reactor temperatures ranged from 20 to 80°C. Increasing internal reactor temperature, ethylene concentration, or air flow resulted in increasing ethylene photocatalysis by the reactor. Increasing dewpoint temperature of the air stream resulted in decreasing ethylene photocatalysis by the reactor. Operation of the reactor over a 120-day period showed that reactor design and catalyst performance were stable and robust during continuous duty. Our results demonstrate that the reactor performed well over a wide range of conditions and may be useful for applications in horticulture. This research was, in part, NASA sponsored, and a reactor similar in design to that used in our studies has been used for plant growth in space.
K.C. Cushman, T.W. Tibbitts, M. Anderson, X. Fu, and W. Zeltner
D. Gerasopoulos and D.G. Richardson
Pear trees (Pyrus communis L.), cv. d'Anjou, received foliar applications of X-77 surfactant and 32.3 mm CaCl2 at 55, 85, 125, and 137 days after full bloom (DAFB) and fruit were harvested at 147 DAFB. Samples of fruit were stored in air either at 20 °C continuously or at 5 or 10 °C for several periods, then transferred to 20 °C, to determine the effects of storage temperature and CaCl2 treatments on the development of the ethylene climacteric and flesh firmness loss. Control fruits held continuously at 20 °C required 70 days for the onset of climacteric ethylene production, which commenced when firmness had decreased to ≈20 N. Calcium-sprayed fruit required 80 days at 20 °C before the rise in ethylene and resisted softening for ≈50 days. Regardless of calcium treatment, pears stored at 5 or 10 °C required only 40 days to produce climacteric ethylene; fruit softening and internal ethylene concentration after storage at 10 °C were intermediate between those of fruits stored at 5 and 20 °C. Calcium application did not alter the sequence of ripening events.
Nobuko Sugimoto and Randy Beaudry
The objective of the experiment was to determine developmental changes in major aroma profiles in `Jonagold' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) and analyze climacteric fruit characteristics. Changes in internal ethylene production, respiration, skin color, texture, and aroma concentration were measured during maturation and ripening of `Jonagold' apple fruit. Patterns for skin color, starch, and internal ethylene content were typical for the variety. Volatile compounds and CO2 increased after a rapid increase in ethylene production. Total ester emission peak coincided with fruit softening. Hexyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, butyl acetate, and hexyl 2-methylbutanoate were found to be the major volatile compounds detected by GC/MS. Long chain esters, such as hexyl acetate and butyl acetate, contributed during the early stages of ripening and short chain esters such as n-propyl acetate and butyl propanoate increased later. Esters are formed by combining alcohol moiety with CoA derivative of fatty acid moiety by the action of alcohol acyl transferase (AAT). The alcohols butanol, 2-methylbutanol, propanol, and hexanol increased at an earlier developmental stage than the esters for which they acted as substrates.
Martin J. Bukovac, Paolo Sabbatini, and Philip G. Schwallier
The effect of ethephon on flowering and cropping of strongly alternate bearing spur-type `Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) was evaluated in a 6-year study. Ethephon (200 mg·L–1), applied at 3, 3 + 6, and 3 + 6 + 9 weeks after full bloom in “on years,” increased flowering in “off years” by 33% and reduced flowering in “on years” by 17% compared with the control. The mean yield per tree for ethephon-treated trees over three “on years” and three “off years” was almost identical to that of the controls (82 vs. 80 kg/tree). However, the distribution of yield between “on” and “off” years was changed, 24% greater in “off years” and 10% less in “on years.” Ethephon reduced both the variation in yield, particularly in “off years,” and the magnitude of alternation. Ethephon had a direct effect on flower initiation because 1) it did not reduce shoot growth or yield in the “on years” (years of ethephon application) and 2) ethephon-treated trees initiated more flowers per kilogram of fruit produced than did the controls. The additional flowers initiated were functional because the amount of fruit produced per unit bloom density did not differ between control and ethephon-treated trees. Harvest maturity indices, namely internal ethylene concentration, firmness, starch index, soluble solids, and color, were not significantly affected, although internal ethylene concentration and starch index tended to be higher in fruit from treated trees.
Zhiguo Ju and Eric A. Curry
Effects of Lovastatin treatment on ethylene production, α-farnesene biosynthesis, and scald development were studied using `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] and `d'Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis L.) stored in air at 0 °C. During 6 months storage, Lovastatin did not affect internal ethylene concentration but reduced α-farnesene production in a concentration dependent manner in both apples and pears. Lovastatin reduced scald at 0.63 mmol·L-1 and inhibited scald completely at 1.25 or 2.50 mmol·L-1 in `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' apples. In `d'Anjou' pears, Lovastatin at concentrations from 0.25 to 1.25 mmol·L-1 inhibited scald completely. After 8 months storage, inhibition of scald in both apples and pears by Lovastatin was concentration-dependent but none of the concentrations totally eliminated scald. Compared with 11.8 mmol·L-1 diphenylamine, Lovastatin treatment reduced scald to the same level at 1.25 mmol·L-1 in `d'Anjou' pear and 2.50 mmol·L-1 in `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' apples. Lovastatin did not affect apple or pear fruit color, firmness, soluble solids content, or titratable acidity during storage in either apple or pear compared with the controls. Chemical name used: [1S-[1a (R °), 3α, 7β, 8β (2S °, 4S °), 8αβ]]-1,2,3,7,8,8α-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-[2-(tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)ethyl]-1-naphthaienyl 2-methylbutanoate (Lovastatin).
Zhiguo Ju and Eric A. Curry
Effects of Lovastatin treatment on ethylene production, α-farnesene biosynthesis, and scald development were studied using `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' apples and `d'Anjou' pears stored in air at 0 °C. During 6 months of storage, Lovastatin did not affect internal ethylene concentration, but reduced α-farnesene production in a concentration-dependent manner in both apples and pears. Lovastatin reduced scald at 0.63 mmol·L-1 and inhibited scald completely at 1.25 or 2.50 mmol·L-1 in `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' apples. In `d'Anjou' pears, Lovastatin at concentrations from 0.25 to 1.25 mmol·L-1 inhibited scald completely. After 8 months of storage, the inhibition of scald in both apples and pears by Lovastatin was concentration-dependent, but none of the concentrations eliminated scald. Compared with 11.8 mmol·L-1 diphenylamine (DPA), Lovastatin treatment reduced scald to the same level at 1.25 mmol·L-1 in `d'Anjou' pear and 2.50 mmol·L-1 in `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' apples. Compared to the controls, Lovastatin did not affect fruit color, firmness, soluble solid contents, or titratable acidity during storage in either apple or pear.
T. Solomos, A. Kannellis, and C.S. Walsh
In the past three years we have studied the effects of oxygen on the maturation and ripening of `Gala' apples. Fruit-respiration, the onset of the climacteric rise in ethylene evolution and the rate of increase in ethylene production were measured. The effects of oxygen on softening and titrable acidity were also assessed. The delay in the onset of the climacteric rise in ethylene evolution shows enzymatic-type kinetics, with saturation levels of about 8-10% oxygen. Treatment with pure oxygen was highly detrimental; it induced visual symptoms of low-oxygen damage and high levels of ethanol. The slope of the rise in ethylene evolution is also a function of oxygen concentration, with an apparent Km for oxygen lower than that which delays the climacteric onset. The effect of oxygen on respiration is dependent on the physiological state of the fruit. In preclimacteric fruits, levels of oxygen between 2 and 8% eventually decrease respiration. Calculations of internal oxygen levels indicate that the diminution of respiration results from decreased metabolic activity in response to hypoxia.
Robert C. Ebel, Edward L. Proebsting, and Max E Patterson
`Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees received regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) early in the growing season to determine if fruit quality and storage life would he altered compared to well-watered trees. Soil moisture and leaf water potential were lower in RDI trees than in those that did not receive RDI most of the season. Internal ethylene concentration increased logarithmically earlier in RDI apples. At harvest, RDI fruit were smaller and had a higher soluble solids concentration (SSC) and lower titratable acidity. Starch degradation was delayed in RDI fruit, and their color was not affected. Firmness was not affected when the effect of size on firmness was removed. The SSC of RDI apples remained higher during storage, but starch content, titratable acidity, firmness, and color were similar.
Ulrich Hartmond, Rongcai Yuan, Jacqueline K. Burns, Angela Grant, and Walter J. Kender
Methyl jasmonate (MJ) was tested as a potential abscission chemical to enhance mechanical harvest of `Hamlin' and `Valenica' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. In field experiments, a solution of 1, 5, 10, 20, or 100 mm MJ was applied either as a stem wrap to individual fruit or as a spray to entire trees or canopy sectors. Solutions of 10, 20, and 100 mm MJ resulted in significant and consistent reduction of fruit detachment force and caused fruit drop within 7 to 10 days. Fruit loosening was preceded by an increase in the internal ethylene concentration of fruit similar to that of other experimental abscission compounds. While concentrations of 10 mm and less caused no or negligible phytotoxicity, solutions exceeding 10 mm MJ induced unacceptable levels of leaf abscission.
C. Larrigaudiere, E. Pinto, and M. Vendrell
The differential effects of two color improving products, ethephon an ethylene-releasing compound, and seniphos, a nonethylene-releasing product, were studied on `Starking Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh L.). Ethephon and seniphos were applied 2 or 3 weeks before commercial harvest. Ethephon- and seniphos-treated fruit showed a significant improvement of peel color associated with a sharp increase in anthocyanin content and chromaticity values. Color improvement in ethephon-treated apples occurred during the preharvest period and cold storage. The seniphos-treated fruit stopped color development in cold conditions. In comparison to the ethephon-treated fruit, the seniphos-treated apples showed lower internal ethylene concentrations and a ripening delay. Both treatments sharply increased the activity of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase enzyme, which seemed to be the determining factor of color enhancement. The seniphos-treated apples compared to ethephon had higher fruit firmness and lower soluble solids concentrations. Anthocyanin biosynthesis may be enhanced by seniphos treatment without inducing ethylene production or other ripening associated changes. As a consequence, fruit treated with seniphos can be held longer in storage.