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David M. Czarnecki II, Madhugiri Nageswara Rao, Jeffrey G. Norcini, Frederick G. Gmitter Jr, and Zhanao Deng

ecotype or source-identified seeds) are more genetically and phenotypically diverse than accessions of that species that have been subjected to a selection process ( Hilker and Jurgenson, 2003 ). Broader genetic diversity estimates of ecotypes will

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Xinwang Wang, Phillip A. Wadl, Cecil Pounders, Robert N. Trigiano, Raul I. Cabrera, Brian E. Scheffler, Margaret Pooler, and Timothy A. Rinehart

single population, localized to one island in Japan. Therefore, most crapemyrtle breeding programs seek new genetic combinations by crossing existing cultivars to create new combinations of ornamental traits. Genetic diversity estimates are critical for

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Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, Patrick A. Reeves, Philip L. Forsline, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

. orientalis natural habitat, trees exhibit a range of vegetative and fruit characters ( Güleryüz, 1988 ). Fruit are often small (2–3.5 cm), sour/sweet, astringent, and bitter ( Khoshbakht and Hammer, 2005 ). Evaluations of genetic diversity of wild Malus

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Paolo Boccacci, Roberto Botta, and Mercè Rovira

germplasm, efforts have been made on a worldwide scale to collect and preserve genetic diversity. In Tarragona, the diverse local hazelnut germplasm was investigated by Tasias Valls (1975) , who assigned cultivars to three groups: I) one main cultivar

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Xiu Cai Fan, Hai Sheng Sun, Ying Zhang, Jian Fu Jiang, Min Li, and Chong Huai Liu

enable the association of heritable traits with underlying genomic variation ( Duran et al., 2009 ). SSRs, whose advantages include codominance, high allele diversity, high stability, and simple operation, have been widely used in genetic diversity

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Shanshan Cao, Stephen Stringer, Gunawati Gunawan, Cecilia McGregor, and Patrick J. Conner

identify cultivars, verify pedigrees, and study genetic diversity in many clonally propagated crops, including bunch grape ( Dangl et al., 2001 ; Franks et al., 2002 ; This et al., 2006 ), blackberry [ Rubus subgenus Rubus sp. ( Zurn et al., 2018

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Myounghai Kwak, Jeong-Ki Hong, Eun Sil Lee, Byoung Yoon Lee, Min Hwan Suh, and Bert Cregg

genetic variation has also been applied to determine whether breeding for white pine blister rust ( Cronartium ribicola ) has affected diversity in western white pine ( Pinus monticola ) ( Kim et al., 2003 ). A previous microsatellite analysis of wild A

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Xinyi Zhang, Li Liao, Zhiyong Wang, Changjun Bai, and Jianxiu Liu

used in lawns, sports fields, and shaded turf ( Zheng et al., 2005 ). The development and application of DNA-based molecular markers has revolutionized the study of genetic diversity ( Kalendar et al., 2011 ). DNA-based molecular markers are often

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Dong Liu, Ping Li, Jiulong Hu, Kunyuan Li, Zhenyu Zhao, Weiyan Wang, Jinyuan Zhang, Xu Ding, and Zhimou Gao

. Some studies of the genetic diversity of P. sojae have been reported ( Galley et al., 2007 ; Mohammadi et al., 2014 ; Silvina et al., 2011 ; Wu et al., 2013 , 2017 ). The first phylogenetic analysis of P. sojae was performed; its taxonomy and

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María José Arismendi, Patricio Hinrichsen, Ruben Almada, Paula Pimentel, Manuel Pinto, and Boris Sagredo

) successfully used SSR markers to fingerprint peach rootstocks. The objective of this study was to conduct a molecular characterization of the main stone fruit rootstocks used in Chile to learn about their diversity, genetic relationships, and to identify the