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Israel S. Joukhadar, Stephanie J. Walker, and Paul A. Funk

contributed to improved mechanical harvest efficiency; however, additional research was needed to identify the most important determinants of mechanical harvest quality/efficiency, such as plant height, plant width, number of basal branches, basal stem

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Craig D. Stanley and Gurpal Toor

success in overcoming these restrictions. This discussion focuses on those constraints that affect water and nutrient application efficiency with respect to irrigation method and drainage. Specifically, the constraints are: 1) irrigation systems and their

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Francisco M. del Amor and María D. Gómez-López

had three plants with three self-compensating, 4-L·h −1 drip emitters. Each plastic bag (≈40 L) was filled with the appropriate substrate. Climatic measurements, water uptake, and water use efficiency. The greenhouse temperature was recorded by a

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Laura L. Van Eerd and Kelsey A. O'Reilly

the environment or nutrient use efficiency ( Beegle et al., 2000 ). The intensification of agricultural production and increased pressure from society on growers to protect consumers and the environment has increased the need for optimizing N use

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Jeremy R. Pinto, Rhiannon A. Chandler, and R. Kasten Dumroese

container nurseries, as leaf area and density increase, irrigation application efficiency decreases ( Beeson and Knox, 1991 ). Consequently, container size may also affect irrigation efficiency, e.g., small container sizes at high densities combined with

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Joanne Logan

and stored during a 1-inch rainfall. Some rainfall evaporates from the roof or leaks from the gutters, so an overall efficiency of 80% to 85% is often used in the calculation of harvested water. A rainfall event of ≈0.5 inch will easily fill a 50 to 55

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Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Eric H. Simonne, Karen E. Koch, and John E. Erickson

grown with drip irrigation in Florida sandy soils; and 2) characterize the influence of grafting with vigorous rootstocks on irrigation water and N use efficiency under these conditions. Materials and Methods Grafting and transplant production. The field

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Sylvia Cherono, Charmaine Ntini, Misganaw Wassie, Mohammad Dulal Mollah, Mohammad A. Belal, Collins Ogutu, and Yuepeng Han

tolerance of coffee plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. We explored the effects of melatonin on the dynamics of antioxidant enzymatic activity, lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic efficiency, and EL in C. arabica seedlings under drought stress. Exogenous

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Timothy L. Righetti, Carmo Vasconcelos, David R. Sandrock, Samuel Ortega, and Yerko Moreno

Four ratio-based efficiency expressions (yield/trunk cross-sectional area, yield/canopy area, yield/pruning weight, CO2 assimilation/leaf area) were evaluated. These expressions depend on the size of the denominator if the function describing the relationship between the denominator and the numerator has a non-zero intercept. When this occurs, it is difficult to determine if statistically different efficiency expressions reflect physiological differences or are caused by comparing expressions with different sized denominators. When denominators and numerators of efficiency expressions are plotted, the edge of the data cloud can often be statistically identified. The function describing the edge of the data cloud defines the maximum possible value (MPV) obtainable for a given value of the denominator. The percentage of MPV (%MPV) is an alternate efficiency expression that is not influenced by differing trunk cross-sectional area, canopy area, pruning weight, or leaf area. The difference between MPV and observed performance can be used to define improvement potential (IP). These alternate assessments can supplement traditional efficiency expressions. It is also possible to determine if statistical differences in traditional efficiency expressions are caused by differences in potential, differences in a plant or leaf's ability to achieve its potential, or differences in the size of the efficiency expression denominators.

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Xin Zhao, Qianqian Dong, Shubang Ni, Xiyong He, Hai Yue, Liang Tao, Yanli Nie, Caixian Tang, Fusuo Zhang, and Jianbo Shen

crop management in the orchard with root/rhizosphere-based nutrient management. Enhancing nutrient-use efficiency through optimizing fertilizer input, improving fertilizer formulation, and maximizing biological interaction effects helps develop healthy