Seed of Petunia × hybrida `Ultra White' were germinated in #406 plug trays at 2.5 C and at a light intensity of 100 μ mol s-1m-2 using a 24 or photoperiod. At germination, seedlings were grown under natural light conditions for 8 hrs (SD) or for 8 hrs with the photoperiod extended to 16 hrs (LD) using incandescent bulbs. At approximately the 6th leaf stage, seedlings were stored at 5 C in the dark or at 12 μ mol s-1m-2 and a 24 hr photoperiod for 0 to 21 days. After storage, plants were potted n 10 cm pots and grown to flowering in a greenhouse. Plants grown under SD to the 6th leaf stage with no cold treatment were shorter. flowered later and had more lateral branching than unstored LD plants. Storage at 5 C decreased time to flower of SD plants and increased branching of LD plants regardless of photoperiod during storage.
Mark P. Kaczperski, Allan M. Armitage, and Pamela M. Lewis
Armida Rodriguez-Felix, Evelia Araiza-Lizarde, Monica A. Villegas-Ochoa, and Elsa Brineas-Taddei
Physico-chemical and physiological changes of `Flordaprince peach fruits harvested at different maturity stages were evaluated during low temperature storage. Harvested fruits were immediately classified into four different maturity stages based on red-skin color (I, 20%; II, 40%; III, 60%; and IV, 80%). Fruits were stored at 2 C (90% R.H.) for 0, 15, and 30 days. Following cold storage conditions, fruits were transferred to a 20 C room. Physico-chemical and physiological characteristics evaluated during storage included weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, skin color (hue), total soluble solids, respiration rate, and ethylene production. Weight loss increased (up to 40%) after 27 days storage at 2C. The fruits harvested at maturity stage I showed the lowest weight loss. Flesh firmness decreased significantly during storage at 2 C. Fruits from stages I and II had higher firmness than fruits harvested at stages III and IV. A significant change from green-yellow to red color was observed in fruits of the distinct maturity stages during storage at 20 C.
Guy J. Hallman
Canistel [Pouteria campechiana (HBK.) Baehni] fruit were subjected to cold storage and hot-water immersion treatments known to kill immature Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] in other fruit. Cold storage at 1 or 3C for 17 days did not cause appreciable loss in canistel quality compared with fruit stored at the normal 10C. Unripe canistels immersed in water at 46C for 90 min or at 48C for 65 min, however, developed dark blotches on the peel and a 2- to 3-mm-thick layer under the peel that did not soften. Canistels were infested with Caribbean fruit flies and subjected to 1 or 3C storage for up to 14 days. The resulting lethality data were fitted to three probability density functions (PDF) to estimate the number of days required to achieve quarantine security (99.9968% dead). The normal and Gompertz PDFs gave some reasonable estimates, while the logistic PDF gave low estimates. At 1C, 14 days would be needed to achieve quarantine security, while at 3C a minimum of 15 days would be required. These estimates must be tested to determine if they are valid after a large amount of Caribbean fruit fly immatures is subjected to the treatments.
W. Todd Watson, David N. Appel, Charles M. Kenerley, and Michael A. Arnold
Effects of washing and storing soil core samples of apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. (syn. M. domestica Borkh. non Poir.)] roots were studied to determine root losses from processing samples. Root losses were assessed by measuring root lengths before and after elutriation and storage at 4 °C (39.2 °F). The accuracy of the automated root length scanner to measure individual fine roots [<1 mm (0.04 inch) diameter] of varying lengths was evaluated by first measuring roots, then cutting the roots into 2 to 3 cm (0.79 to 1.18 inch) lengths and rescanning. There was a significant relationship between the measurement of cut and noncut roots (r 2 = 0.93). Losses from elutriating samples with cut and noncut roots indicated a mean loss of50% for samples with cut roots and 34% for samples with noncut roots (P ≤ 0.01). Total mean root loss (elutriation loss of noncut roots and degradation loss in cold storage) for the 12-month period ranged from 34% at month 0% to 53% at month 12 (P ≤ 0.01). Mean root degradation losses from long-term cold storage ranged from 6% at month 1 to 19% at month 12 (P ≤ 0.01). No losses were identified for roots with diameters of 1 to 5 mm (0.04 to 0.20 inch) and 5 to 10 mm (0.20 to 0.39 inch). A data correction curve was developed to correct root length data (<1 mm) for root losses associated with processing of soil cores.
Jan E.P. Debaene and I.L. Goldman
Raw onion extract contains organosulfur compounds that prevent aggregation of platelets in human blood plasma and influence onion pungency. Organosulfur compounds are volatile and may change concentration during storage. A study was conducted to determine 1) whether antiplatelet activity of filtered onion extract decreases during time in cold (4C) storage; and 2) correlations among antiplatelet activity, pyruvic acid content, and percent solids during time in cold storage. Two low-pungency genotypes (8155 and Exhibition) and two high-pungency (W420 and W434) genotypes were grown in replicated plots in two Wisconsin and two Oregon locations in 1994. Bulbs were evaluated for antiplatelet activity, percent solids, and pyruvic acid content at 40-day intervals after onion harvest. Significant differences were found for pyruvic acid content, solids, and antiplatelet activity among dates of sampling, genotypes, and locations. Mean pyruvic acid concentrations ranged from 6.4 μm·ml–1 of extract for Exhibition, to 8.0 μm·ml–1 of extract for W420. Mean solids concentrations ranged from 5.8 g/100 g for Exhibition to 11.4 g/100 g for W434. Antiplatelet activity averaged over all genotypes increased over 120 days and was positively correlated with percent solids and pyruvic acid content.
Philip L. Forsline, James R. McFerson, and Warren F. Lamboy
107 POSTER SESSION (Abstr. 465–478) Stress–Cold Temperatures
Mario Schirra and Maurizio Mulas
Freshly harvested `Fortune' mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco) were dipped for 3 minutes in 25 or 52C water and then stored for 5 weeks at 2C. Then, the fruit were or were not intermittently warmed at 10C for 3 days after each 4-day storage period. All fruit then were held at 20C for 1 week to simulate retail marketing. Chilling injury was more severe in fruit dipped in 25C water and stored at 2C than in fruit dipped in 25C water and stored under intermittent warming. The hot dip treatment significantly reduced the extent of damage during storage and the subsequent 1 week of holding at 20C. The hot dip treatment reduced the incidence of fungal decay, especially during holding at 20C. Dip temperature and storage conditions slightly affected fruit physiological and quality characteristics. We conclude that prestorage hot dip treatments can be used to improve `Fortune' mandarin storing qualities. Also, this practice may be combined with intermittent warming during cold storage, and it could help limit fungicide use in postharvest treatments.
Maria P. Paz*, Jeff S. Kuehny, and Richard Criley
Ornamental gingers are popular cut flowers and have been promoted as a promising potted flower crop because of unique foliage, long-lasting colorful bracts, and few pest problems. Rhizomes are the primary means of propagation in late spring followed by shoot growth and flowering, and plants enter dormancy under short days in the fall. Termination of dormancy is important for greenhouse forcing and extending the growing season. Dormancy of storage organs can be terminated prematurely by temperature. Rhizomes of three ginger species (Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep., C. cordata L., and Globba winittii C.H. Wright) were stored for 0,1, or 2 weeks at 10 or 15 °C followed by 0,1, or 2 weeks at 25, 30, or 35 °C to determine the effect on growth and flowering. Upon completion of treatment application, rhizomes were planted in a peat moss: bark: perlite mix and placed in a greenhouse with 25 °C day/21 °C night temperatures with 40% shade. Rhizome cold storage in combination with hot storage affected growth and development of ornamental gingers. Days to emergence (DTE) and days to flower (DTF) for Globba were hastened when rhizomes were stored for 3 weeks at 15 °C followed by 3 weeks at 30 °C. For C. alismatifolia, DTE and DTF were hastened when rhizomes were stored for 3 weeks at 10 °C followed by 3 weeks at 30 °C. For C. cordata, DTE and DTF were hastened with rhizome storage of 2 weeks at 10 °C followed by 3 weeks at 35 °C.
Stephen L. Love, Asunta Thompson-Johns, and Timothy P. Baker
Eight hundred and fifty-three clones of Russet Burbank and 1012 clones of Lemhi Russet were obtained from Native Plants, Inc. in 1988. The clones were produced via a tissue culture system designed to produce somoclonal variants. Four cycles of selection were completed from 1988-1991. Selection was based on resistance to blackspot bruise, a tuber flesh discoloration caused by condensation of free tyrosine; or the ability to produce light french fry color following cold storage. At the end of the four selection cycles all but six Russet Burbank clones and seven Lemhi Russet clones were eliminated. ANOVA across years was completed for the eleven somaclonal variants and Russet Burbank and Lemhi Russet checks.
Of the Russet Burbank clones, three were significantly (p = .05) more resistant to blackspot bruise and one had significantly better fry color after cold storage. All four clones had significantly reduced yield in comparison to the check clones. Of the Lemhi Russet clones, three were significantly more resistant to blackspot bruise, and four had significantly better fry color than the check clone. Only one of the seven clones (one with superior fry color designated L1908) did not show a significantly lower yield potential.
David M. Obenland and Tanya R. Carroll
`Elegant Lady', `O'Henry' and `September Sun' peaches [(Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Peach Group)] and `Summer Bright' and `Summer Grand' nectarines [(Prunus persica (L.) Batsch f. nucipersica (Nectarine Group)] heated to a seed surface temperature of 47.2 °C over a period of 4 hours developed mealy flesh sooner and to a much greater extent than nonheated fruit following cold storage at 5 °C for 1 to 3 weeks. Exo- and endopolygalacturonase activities were reduced following 3 to 4 hours of heating and may have been responsible for the increased mealiness. Mealiness often developed in defined regions rather than throughout the entire fruit. Comparison of juicy and mealy regions within individual fruit revealed that mealy regions contained 65% and 86% less exo- and endopolygalacturonase activity, respectively, than juicy regions, whereas pectinmethylesterase activity was unchanged. Extractable protein was reduced by >50% in the mealy regions of the fruit. Intermittent warming periods of 24 hours at 20 °C at weekly intervals during storage at 5 °C were less effective in reducing mealiness in heat-treated than in control fruit. It is important that future work with heat treatments and stone fruit closely monitor potential effects on this disorder to avoid loss of market quality following treatment.