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Ross Braun, Jack Fry, Megan Kennelly, Dale Bremer, and Jason Griffin

Coatings, Norcross, GA) applied once in autumn in a dilution of 1:10 (colorant:water) at rate of 80 gal/acre enhanced winter color of ‘Diamond’ zoysiagrass ( Zoysia matrella ) and ‘Miniverde’ hybrid bermudagrass putting greens ( Briscoe et al., 2010

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Lie-Bao Han, Gui-Long Song, and Xunzhong Zhang

Traffic stress causes turfgrass injury and soil compaction but the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well documented. The objectives of this study were to investigate the physiological responses of kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and japanese zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) to three levels of traffic stress during the growing season under simulated soccer traffic conditions. Relative leaf water content (LWC), shoot density, leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC), membrane permeability, and leaf antioxidant peroxidase (POD) activity were measured once per month. The traffic stress treatments caused a reduction in LWC, shoot density, LCC, and POD activity, and an increase in cell membrane permeability in all three species. Japanese zoysiagrass had less electrolyte leakage, and higher POD activity and shoot density than both kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue. The results suggest that turfgrass tolerance to traffic stress may be related to leaf antioxidant activity. Turfgrass species or cultivars with higher leaf antioxidant activity may be more tolerant to traffic stress than those with lower antioxidant activity.

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Suleiman S. Bughrara, David R. Smitley, and David Cappaert

Six grass species representing vegetative and seeded types of native, warm-season and cool-season grasses, and pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica) were evaluated in the greenhouse for resistance to root-feeding grubs of european chafer (Rhizotrogus majalis). Potted bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchlöe dactyloides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and pennsylvania sedge grown in a greenhouse were infested at the root zone with 84 grubs per 0.1 m2 or 182 grubs per 0.1 m2. The effects on plant growth, root loss, survival, and weight gain of grubs were determined. Survival rates were similar for low and high grub densities. With comparable densities of grubs, root loss tended to be proportionately less in zoysiagrass and bermudagrass than in other species. European chafer grubs caused greater root loss at higher densities. Grub weight gain and percentage recovery decreased with increasing grub density, suggesting a food limitation even though root systems were not completely devoured. Bermudagrass root weight showed greater tolerance to european chafer grubs; another mechanism is likely involved for zoysiagrass. Variation in susceptibility of plant species to european chafer suggests that differences in the ability of the plants to withstand grub feeding damage may be amenable to improvement by plant selection and breeding.

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Michael D. Richardson, John McCalla, Tina Buxton, and Filippo Lulli

-10RV. Univ. Ark., Div. Agr Patton, A.J. Reicher, Z.J. 2007 Zoysiagrass species and genotypes differ in their winter injury and freeze tolerance Crop Sci. 47 1619 1627 Peterson, K.W. Fry, J.D. Bremer, D.J. 2014 Growth responses of Zoysia sp. under tree

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Yaling Qian and Jack D. Fry

Greenhouse studies were conducted on three warm-season turfgrasses, `Midlawn' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy], `Prairie' buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.], and `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), and a cool-season turfgrass, `Mustang' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to determine 1) water relations and drought tolerance characteristics by subjecting container-grown grasses to drought and 2) potential relationships between osmotic adjustment (OA) and turf recovery after severe drought. Tall fescue was clipped at 6.3 cm once weekly, whereas warm-season grasses were clipped at 4.5 cm twice weekly. The threshold volumetric soil water content (SWC) at which a sharp decline in leaf water potential (ψL) occurred was higher for tall fescue than for warm-season grasses. Buffalograss exhibited the lowest and tall fescue exhibited the highest reduction in leaf pressure potential (ψP) per unit decline in ψL during dry down. Ranking of grasses for magnitude of OA was buffalograss (0.84 MPa) = zoysiagrass (0.77 MPa) > bermudagrass (0.60 MPa) > tall fescue (0.34 MPa). Grass coverage 2 weeks after irrigation was resumed was correlated positively with magnitude of OA (r = 0.66, P < 0.05).

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P.H. Dernoeden and M.J. Carroll

In this field study, five preemergence and two postemergence herbicides were evaluated for their ability to hasten Meyer zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) sod development when sod was established from the regrowth of rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris. Herbicide influence on zoysiagrass re-establishment was examined using two postharvest field preparation procedures as follows: area I was raked to remove most above-ground sod debris, whereas in adjacent area II sod debris was allowed to remain in place. Herbicides that controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] generally enhanced zoysiagrass cover by reducing weed competition. Meyer established from rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris, and treated with herbicides, had a rate of sod formation equivalent to that expected in conventionally tilled, planted, and irrigated Meyer sod fields. Effective smooth crabgrass control was achieved when the rates of most preemergence herbicides were reduced in the 2nd year. Chemical names used: dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); 3,5,-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-[difluromethyl]-4-[2-methyl-propyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)∼S,S-dimethyl ester (dithiopyr); [±]-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-[1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine(pendimethalin);N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-[trifluromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); and 3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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Karen R. Harris, Brian M. Schwartz, Andrew H. Paterson, and Jeff A. Brady

L6 , M , and N . The scale at the bottom of the figure represents amino acid similarity. Bootstrap values greater than 50% are shown. Cross-species amplification of BRGA or disease-resistance EST analogs. Zoysiagrass (Z. japonica

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Alan J. Zuk and Jack D. Fry

Establishment of seeded `Zenith' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) in an existing sward of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is difficult, and chemicals arising from perennial ryegrass leaf and root tissue may contribute to establishment failure. Experiments were done to evaluate zoysiagrass emergence and growth in soil amended with perennial ryegrass leaves or roots, or after irrigation with water in which perennial ryegrass leaves or roots had previously been soaked. Compared to unamended soil, soil amended with perennial ryegrass leaves at 12% and 23% by weight reduced zoysiagrass seedling number 20% and 26%, respectively; root area and mass were reduced 50% when amendments comprised 12% of soil weight. Similar reductions in zoysiagrass seedling emergence and growth were observed in a second soil amendment study, regardless of whether perennial ryegrass was treated with glyphosate or not. Soil mixed with perennial ryegrass leaves, but not roots, at 12% by weight had a high soil conductivity (5.1 dS·m–1), which could have contributed to reduced zoysiagrass emergence and growth. More than 50% fewer zoysiagrass seedlings emerged and root mass was up to 65% lower when irrigated with water in which perennial ryegrass leaves or roots at 5, 10, or 20 g·L–1 were previously soaked for 48 hours. Zoysiagrass leaf area, and root length and area, were also lower when irrigated with water previously containing perennial ryegrass roots. Perennial ryegrass leaves and roots have the capacity to inhibit emergence and growth of `Zenith' zoysiagrass seedlings, which could negatively affect stand establishment.

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Y.L. Qian and J.D. Fry

`Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) was established on a silt loam soil in 27-cm-diameter × 92-cm-deep containers in a greenhouse to investigate the influence of irrigation frequency on turfgrass rooting and drought tolerance. Turf was irrigated daily or at the onset of leaf rolling with a water volume equal to the cumulative evapotranspiration of well-watered turf in small weighing lysimeters. After >90 days of irrigation treatments, a dry-down was imposed during which no additional water was applied for 55 days. A recovery period followed during which time turf was watered to maintain soil matric potential at greater than –30 kPa. Compared to turf irrigated daily, that watered at the onset of leaf rolling exhibited 1) 32% to 36% lower leaf water potential and 14% to 22% lower osmotic potential before the onset of drought; 2) 13% higher leaf water potential ≈40 days into dry-down; 3) more extensive rooting at 55- and 75-cm soil depths as indicated by 11% to 19% lower volumetric soil moisture content at the end of dry-down; 4) 25% to 40% lower shoot growth rate during irrigation and 13% to 33% higher shoot growth rate during dry-down; and 5) higher quality ratings during dry-down and recovery. Thus, deep, infrequent irrigation better prepares zoysiagrass for an oncoming drought than light, frequent irrigation.

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Y.L. Qian and M.C. Engelke

Determining the appropriate level of irrigation for turfgrasses is vital to the health of the turfgrass and the conservation of water. The linear gradient irrigation system (LGIS) allows long-term assessment of turf performance under continuous irrigation gradients from excess to no irrigation. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the minimum irrigation requirements and relative drought resistance of `Rebel II' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], `Prairie' buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm], and `Nortam' St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze]; and 2) evaluate the long-term effects of irrigation levels on turf persistence, weed invasion, and disease incidence for the five selected turfgrasses under field conditions. Turf was sodded under LGIS with an irrigation gradient ranging from 120% Class A pan evaporation (Ep) to natural precipitation, along a 20-m turf area. Evaluation during the summers of 1993–96 indicated that grasses differed in drought resistance and persistence under variable irrigation regimes. Irrigation (Ep) required to maintain acceptable turf quality for respective grasses was `Rebel II' (67%), `Meyer' (68%), `Nortam' (44%), `Tifway' (35%), and `Prairie' (26%). Higher dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Bennett) infection was observed at 115% Ep irrigation regime in `Tifway' bermudagrass, whereas gray leaf spot [Pyricularia grisea (Hebert) Barr] was observed only at 10% Ep irrigation regime in St. Augustinegrass plots. An outbreak of brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn.) occurred in Sept. 1996 in St. Augustinegrass plots receiving irrigation at >80% Ep.