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D.S. Achor and L.G. Albrigo

Permanent chlorosis of leaves on plants fertilized with urea containing high levels of the contaminant biuret has been observed in several crops including citrus. Little has been reported as to the cellular changes that result from such chlorosis. Branches from `Ruby Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyn) and `Hamlin' orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were sprayed with urea solutions containing 1.05% biuret. As visible symptoms developed, leaf tissue samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopy. For comparison purposes, leaves from similar trees showing chlorosis from age-related senescence and Zn deficiency were also sampled. The progressive development of chlorosis in biuret-affected leaves was characterized by: the loss of starch, thylakoidal and granal membranes in chloroplasts along with the enlargement and increase in number of plastoglobuli or lipid bodies. The lipid bodies were liberated alone or in association with membrane vesicles to the cytoplasm and vacuoles. The number and volume of the individual chloroplasts became smaller. Concurrent loss of cytoplasmic content and the enlargement of the vacuolar space were also observed in the biuret affected leaf tissue. Similar findings were observed in the cells of senescent leaves. In cells of leaves showing nutritional deficiency, losses in cytoplasmic content and vacuolar enlargement were observed but there was neither complete loss of thylakoidal or granal membranes nor the release of lipids from the plastids. It was concluded that 1) the cytological characteristics of the biuret-affected samples were more similar to age-related senescent samples than to chlorosis from Zn deficiency and 2) that complete loss of the lipid bodies from the chromoplasts to the cytoplasm and vacuole in the biuret-affected samples and in age-related senescence in citrus leaves was responsible for the permanent nature of the chlorosis.

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Lenny Wells

. 2013 at a spacing of 9 m × 15.2 m on Norfolk loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kandiudult). The following treatments were evaluated: 1) fertigation using liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) (28N–0P–0K) with 5% S at a total volume of 68 L

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Shufu Dong, Lailiang Cheng, Guihong Bi, and Leslie H. Fuchigami

`Gala'/M26 apple and `Bartlett'/OH97 pear trees growing in containers were treated with either 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, or 30g of urea dissolved in 150 mL of distilled water on 7 Sept. 1999. Two weeks after application, a soil sample from each container was analyzed for NH4 + and NO3 . One day after treatment, the leaves of the apple trees treated with either 20 or 30 g urea wilted and curled and none of the other apple treatments were affected. However, 20 days later, new lateral and terminal buds broke to grow from these two treatments. In contrast, the pear trees showed signs of wilting and leaf necrosis in the 5, 10, 20, and 30 g urea treatments about 6 days after application. Twenty days after treatment, the leaves from the two highest treatments were completely necrotic and remained attached to the trees, while the leaves of 5- and 10-g treatments were partially necrotic and began defoliating. None of the pear trees produced any new lateral or terminal growth. Soil test showed that NH4 + contents of the soils were 54.9, 104.2, 356.9, 884.28, 1154.9, and 1225.2 mg/kg for `Bartlett'/OH97, and 30.2, 62.9, 359.0, 235.1, 529.9, and 499.0 mg/kg for `Gala'/M26 and NO3 contents of the soils were 40.5, 62.4, 211.0, 129.8, 54.5, and 39.5 mg/kg for `Bartlett'/OH97, and 37.6, 42.0, 178.7, 138.2, 186.2, and 142.1 mg/kg for `Gala'/M26 treated with 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 g urea, respectively.

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Allen V. Barker and Kenneth A. Corey

Urea fertilization of `Heinz 1350' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in sand or soil culture did not enhance ethylene evolution or restrict growth relative to plants receiving \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{3}}^{\mathbf{-}}\) \end{document} whereas \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{4}}^{\mathbf{+}}\) \end{document} nutrition doubled the relative rates of ethylene evolution and restricted relative growth. Inhibitors of N transformations in media (nitrapyrin, Np; hydroquinone, HQ; and phenylphosphorodiamidate, PPD) had no apparent stimulator effects on ethylene evolution of plants grown on urea or \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{3}}^{\mathbf{-}}\) \end{document} nutrition in sand or soil. Ethylene evolution was enhanced by PPD relative to that by Np or HQ for plants receiving \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{4}}^{\mathbf{+}}\) \end{document} nutrition. Each inhibitor had toxic effects on plant growth. Increasing K+ supply from 0 to 8 mm in nutrient solutions decreased ethylene evolution and increased plant growth with urea fertilization. Urea had low phytotoxicity if its hydrolysis to \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathbf{NO}_{\mathbf{4}}^{\mathbf{+}}\) \end{document} was prevented in the media. Chemical names used: p-dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone); benzenephosphorodiamide (phenylphosphorodiamidate); 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin).

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Bruno Razeto and Jorge Salgado

A tissue analysis trial for the diagnosis of nitrogen level was performed during the 2001 growing season in Paine County, Metropolitan Region, Chile. Seven-year-old `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees were soil treated with urea at rates of 0, 333, 666, and 999 g N/tree, split in two applications (2 and 4 months after fruit set). Each treatment was applied to three randomly selected trees. Fifty spring flush leaves and fifteen fruit peduncles were taken per tree 4 months after application. Two months later, 70 panicles per tree were taken, and nitrogen concentration in these samples was determined by Kjeldahl digestion. Differences between treatments were better detected in peduncle and inflorescence samples than in leaf samples. The relationship between nitrogen dose and nitrogen concentration in the tissue was R 2 = 0.67, 0.65, and 0.56 in peduncle, leaf, and inflorescence, respectively. Consequently, peduncle appears a promising tissue, probably better than leaf, for diagnosing the nitrogen status of avocado trees.

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Thomas Yeager, Ed Gilman, Diane Weigle, and Claudia Larsen

Columns (4 × 15 cm) of a pine bark medium amended with the equivalent of 4.2 kg per cubic meter of dolomitic limestone and either 0, 2.4, 4.7, 7.1 or 9.5 mg of urea-formaldehyde (38% N) per cubic centimeter of medium were leached daily with 16 ml of deionized water (pH 5.5). Leachate total N, NO3 --N and NH4 +-N concentrations were determined on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 49, 91, 133, 203, 273 and 343. Leachate total N ranged from 600 ppm on day 1 for the 9.5 mg treatment to 4 ppm on day 273 for the 2.4 mg treatment. Leachate NH4 +-N concentrations ranged from 38 ppm c4 day 3 for the 9.5 mg treatment to less than 1 ppm on day 7 for the 2.4 mg treatment and were less than total N concentrations at each sampling time. Leachate NO3 --N was not detectable during the experimental period. Eleven, 16, 20 and 25% of the applied N leached from the columns amended with 2.4, 4.7, 7.1 or 9.5 mg of urea-formaldehyde per cubic centimeter of pine bark, respectively, during the 371 day experiment.

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Vladimir Orbović, Diann Achor, Peter Petracek, and James P. Syvertsen

Effects of air temperature, relative humidity (RH), and leaf age on penetration of urea through isolated leaf cuticles of `Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus×paradisi Macfad.) trees on `Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. rootstock were examined. Intact cuticles were obtained from adaxial surfaces of `Marsh' grapefruit leaves of various ages. A finite dose diffusion system was used to follow movement of 14C-labeled urea from urea solution droplets across cuticles throughout a 4-day period. Within the first 4 to 6 hours after urea application, the rate of urea penetration increased as temperature increased from 19 to 28 °C, but there was no further increase at 38 °C. Increasing relative humidity increased urea penetration at 28 °C and 38 °C. Cuticle thickness, cuticle weight per area, and the contact angle of urea solution droplets increased as leaves aged. Cuticular permeability to urea decreased as leaf age increased from 3 to 7 weeks, but permeability increased in cuticles from leaves older than 9 weeks. Contact angles decreased with increased urea solution concentration on leaf surfaces that were 6 to 7 weeks old, but solution concentration had no effect on contact angle on cuticles from younger and older leaves. Changing urea solution pH from 8.0 to 4.0 could have an effect on the amount of urea penetrating the cuticle through the loss of urea from breakdown possibly due to hydrolysis. Results from this study define leaf age, environmental conditions, and formulation for maximum uptake of foliar-applied urea.

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Vladimir Orbovic, John L. Jifon, and James P. Syvertsen

Urea solutions, with or without non-ionic (X-77) and organosilicone (L-77) surfactant, were applied to Citrus leaves and isolated cuticles to examine adjuvant effects on urea uptake and leaf net gas exchange. When compared to X-77, L-77 exhibited superior features as a surfactant, resulting in smaller contact angles of droplets deposited on teflon slide. Both L-77 and X-77 had a strong effect on penetration rate of urea within first 20 min of experiment. Effect of L-77 on urea penetration rate decreased quickly within next 20 min, whereas the effect of X-77 was sustained over a 24-h period following application. When compared to solution of urea alone, addition of X-77 to urea resulted in significant increase of the total amount of urea that penetrated the cuticles. The effect of L-77 was smaller, although the total amount of urea that penetrated the cuticles within a 4-day period was similar for both surfactants. Solutions of either urea alone, urea+L-77 and urea+X-77, or L-77 alone, induced a negative effect on net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) for 4 to 24 h after they were sprayed onto leaves. X-77, when applied alone, had no effect on ACO2. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that 1 h after application, leaf surfaces treated with X-77 appeared to be heavily coated, as opposed to those treated with L-77, which appeared similar to untreated control leaves.

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Bernard A. L. Nicoulaud and Arnold J. Bloom

Concentrations of up to 1.0 μm NiCl2 in a nutrient solution improved growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `T-5') seedlings that received foliar urea as their sole nitrogen source. Nickel in the nutrient solution decreased the amount of urea present in the shoots and increased the amount in the roots, although it had no significant effect upon leaf urease activity. These results indicate that a) the presence of nickel in the nutrient solution improves growth of plants receiving foliar urea and b) the effect of nickel was related more to increased urea translocation from shoot to root than to enhanced leaf urease activity.

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J.G. Clapp Jr.

Urea-triazone-based nitrogen (N) solutions were evaluated for potential leaf injury on agronomic and horticultural crops at 61 commercial grower sites throughout the United States. Poliar spray solutions containing triazone N were used at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 15.7%. Safe N concentrations for urea-triazone-based N products ranged from 1.5% for crops such as sweet corn, apple, cherry, and pear, and up to 15.7% for nursery root stocks. Urea-triazone-based N solutions were found to be much safer on crop foliage than ammonium-, nitrate-, and/or all urea-based foliar fertilizer products than reported in the literature.