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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, José X. Chaparro, and Jeffrey Williamson

hybrids of this cultivar tended to express this growth habit, showing that it is heritable and has a propensity toward dominance of this trait. Analysis of peach × almond F 1 s backcrossed to almond indicated that tree size was larger than peach and the

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William S. Castle, Kim D. Bowman, James C. Baldwin, Jude W. Grosser, and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr.

identify the rootstocks that increased juice SS concentration, earliness of maturity, and reduced tree size. Materials and Methods Plant material and propagation. The commercial cooperator produced container-grown nursery trees in a company nursery. Seeds

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Yiannis G. Ampatzidis and Matthew D. Whiting

is one of the most labor-intensive of all agricultural endeavors as a result of large tree size, high number of fruit per tree, and small fruit size. During harvest, laborers move along rows picking fruit with a slight twisting–snapping motion

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Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie, and Bruce L. Topp

on light interception ( Loreti et al., 1976 ; Robinson, 1996 ). For temperate crops such as apple, the use of pruning, detailed training, and rootstocks to control tree size has allowed a reduction in tree spacing and has led to increased flowering

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C.S. Walsh, F.J. Allnutt, G.R Welsh, and R.H. Zimmerman

A planting to compare budded apple trees (M7a, Ml11) and tissue-culture-(TC) propagated trees was established in 1985. `Golden Delicious' and `Gala' trees were more productive than other cultivars and appeared better-suited to micropropagation. High cumulative yields per tree were harvested regardless of rootstock. `McIntosh', `Delicious', `Mutsu', and `MacSpur' trees were less precocious and more responsive to size-controlling rootstocks. To control tree size prior to bearing and minimize propagation time, trees were set as containerized transplants in a subsequent trial begun in 1986. Small containerized trees were set directly into the orchard. Setting trees in this manner has restricted tree size without delaying bearing. `Oregon Spur II' trees and `Empire' trees are now about 4 m tall. Trees have wide branch angles and numerous spurs. To further control tree size, trees were root-pruned with a Vermeer tree spade in 1991. In the year following, treated trees flowered profusely but did not fruit. Since then, cropping has controlled tree size. Ten years ex vitro `Granny Smith', `Oregon Spur II', and `Empire' trees can be managed without ladders. The goals of this study were: 1) to avoid “short life” problems and 2) develop a management scheme that would allow rapid entry of “bioengineered” cultivars into commercial orchards. Based on our research, selecting precocious cultivars or spur-type clones, in combination with transplanting 3 to 4 months ex vitro and root pruning show promise toward accomplishing these goals.

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Ashley A. Thompson and Gregory M. Peck

and by the end of the 3 years there were no differences in tree size ( Table 2 ). Red peel color was the only fruit quality or maturity parameter affected by the treatments. In 2015, fruit yield was 68%, 53%, and 59% greater from the CON, MIN, and FGN

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James D. Oster, D.E. Stottlmyer, and M.L. Arpaia

as a randomized complete block design with six blocks, each including one replicate of all irrigation treatments. One or two trees located at the center of replicates, designated as record trees, were used to measure yields and tree size. Soil and

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A. Cedeño-Maldonado and E. Méndez

Control of tree size is an important consideration in developing commercial mango orchards. The use of dwarfing rootstock is one of the methods available for controlling tree size. The development of techniques for increasing the effect of dwarfing rootstock is the objective of the present research. Container size treatments consisted of planting seedlings of different rootstock in containers of 1 to 8 L in size. Pruning treatments consisted of removing the shoot, root or shoot-root (combined) tips of young seedlings previous to planting. Most significant changes were produced by using the smallest containers and combined pruning. Most significant fresh and dry weight reductions were obtained in the smallest containers. Combined pruning produced a significant increase in fresh weight-of both roots and shoots but no significant changes in dry weight. Plant height was not significantly affected but bark thickness was significantly reduced by decreasing container size. Eldon a monoembryonic variety was significantly bigger than polyembryonic varieties.

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A. Cedeño-Maldonado and E. Méndez

Control of tree size is an important consideration in developing commercial mango orchards. The use of dwarfing rootstock is one of the methods available for controlling tree size. The development of techniques for increasing the effect of dwarfing rootstock is the objective of the present research. Container size treatments consisted of planting seedlings of different rootstock in containers of 1 to 8 L in size. Pruning treatments consisted of removing the shoot, root or shoot-root (combined) tips of young seedlings previous to planting. Most significant changes were produced by using the smallest containers and combined pruning. Most significant fresh and dry weight reductions were obtained in the smallest containers. Combined pruning produced a significant increase in fresh weight-of both roots and shoots but no significant changes in dry weight. Plant height was not significantly affected but bark thickness was significantly reduced by decreasing container size. Eldon a monoembryonic variety was significantly bigger than polyembryonic varieties.

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Dan E. Parfitt, Chih-Cheng T. Chao, Craig Kallsen, Joe Maranto, and Louise Ferguson

A pistachio breeding program was initiated in 1989 to develop new cultivars for the California industry. The program was begun with an initial set of 1940 progeny from 78 crosses. In 1990, an additional 5470 seedlings were produced from 176 controlled crosses. Progeny were planted at Winters, Calif., Kearney Agr. Center, and a plot near Bakersfield in a randomized block design with crosses as treatments. Fifty-three, 962, and 2943 genotypes flowered in 1994, 1995, and 1996, respectively. Data on flowering, flowering date, sex, tree size as measured by trunk cross-section area, and disease status were collected on all trees in the breeding program at the three field locations. Nuts were collected and evaluated for number of nuts/tree, % splits, % blanks, wet and dry weight, kernel weight, and volume. Heritability estimates for nut characters, tree size, and Alternaria resistance were ranged from 0.30 to 0.76. Several parents were identified that apparently provide a high level of resistance to Alternaria. Relationships among various nut parameters and the relationship of tree size to flowering and parentage were also investigated and evaluated statistically. Replicated advanced selection trials will be established in 1997.