The role of light quality on growth, flowering, and postharvest characteristics of `Nellie White' Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) was evaluated in two growing seasons using 4% CuSO4 and water (control) as spectral filters. The CuSO4 filter significantly reduced plant height and internode length. However, the height reduction was smaller in the 1994—95 season (9%) than in the 1995—96 growing season (32%). The number of days to flower bud appearance and flower opening, and the number and diameter of flowers were not significantly affected by the spectral filters in either season. The CuSO4 filters reduced flower longevity by 3 days in nonstored plants, and by 5 days when plants were subjected to 1 week storage at 4 °C prior to placing in the postharvest room. Results suggest that spectral filters are effective in controlling height and producing compact Easter lily plants without causing a delay in flowering or reducing number of flowers per plant but flower longevity can be adversely affected.
V.R. Kambalapally and Nihal C. Rajapakse
John E. Erwin and Royal D. Heins
Day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) influenced Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White' stem elongation and development rate from the visible bud stage (VB) until anthesis. Plant height increase after VB was a function of the difference (DIF) between DT and NT (DT-NT). Plant height increased 90% as DIF increased from - 16 to 16C. A cubic model described bud development rate as a function of temperature from 14 to 30C. A linear model adequately described bud development rate as a function of average daily temperature from 14 to 21C. Based on the linear model, bud development rate increased 0.05 per day for each 1C increase in average daily temperature. The base temperature for bud development, i.e., the temperature at which bud development rate was 0, was calculated as 3.5C.
Smiljana Goreta, Kristina Batelja, and Slavko Perica
irrigated pots at 16 Sept., and at 7 and 27 Oct. Plant growth measurements. Plant height (from the substrate surface to the top of the longest vertical lateral shoot), plant canopy diameter (the average of two measurements taken at the widest and shortest
Luther Waters Jr., Rhoda L. Burrows, Mark A. Bennett, and John Schoenecker
A series of experiments exploring the effect of seed moisture and transplant management techniques was conducted with sh2 and su sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The use of seed and transplants in a progression of developmental stages from dry seed to moistened seed to 14-day-old transplants showed that moistened seed had no impact on plant `growth and development. Use of transplants generally had little impact beyond decreasing percent survival and plant height. Increasing the age of transplants reduced the time to maturity and harvest. Increasing the size of the transplant container (paper pot) decreased the time to harvest for younger seedings, but had no other effects. Premoistened seed were successfully held at 10C for up to 72 hours without damage following moisturization. Delays in irrigation of up to 2 days after planting moistened seed had no detrimental effects on sweet corn emergence and growth.
Matthew D. Kleinhenz
A total of 21 and 28 standard and experimental varieties of yellow and white se- and sh2-type sweet corn (Zea mays) were planted in 1999 and 2000 in Fremont and Wooster, Ohio, which are separated by 193.1 km (120 miles) and contain different soil types. Data are reported here for a subset of these varieties (eight yellow, two white) showing a consistently high level of use in Ohio and planted in both years. Endosperm types were planted in distinct, parallel experiments separated by a minimum of 79.9 m (262 ft) at each site. A randomized complete block design with four replications per variety (V) per location (L) was used, with measures of 13 production- and market-based variables taken from emergence to 48 hours after harvest. Soluble solids 48 hours after harvest were greater at Wooster than Fremont in the sh2 study. Variety had a significant, independent effect on mean plant and ear height in the se and sh2 study, respectively, although further analysis of year × variety (Y × V) and location × variety (L × V) interactions suggested that V affected additional traits. On average, `Tuxedo' (se) and `HMX6383S' (sh2) had superior com-binations of grower- and consumer-oriented traits. However, varieties with the highest levels of percent emergence and marketable yield tended to have lower levels of soluble solids, regardless of endosperm type. Y × V interactions were primarily due to changes in the magnitude of values for individual varieties in each year, not from changes in their relative ranking. The Y × L × V interaction was significant (P ≤ 0.05) for marketable yield, plant and ear height, and the ratio of ear length to diameter in the se study, but zero variables in the sh2 study. Coefficients of determination (R 2) for selected plant and ear traits were unaffected by location. Overall, R2 values ranged from 0.04 (number of rows of kernels × ear diameter, sh2 study) to 0.83 (shank length × total ear length, sh2 study). These data reinforce that genetics strongly affect key traits in sweet corn and identify two potential top performers. The data also suggest that independent L or L × V effects may be minor relative to V effects, even when locations are separated by moderate distances and contain different soil types. Therefore, including more varieties but fewer sites may be warranted in future variety trials. The data also suggest that 1) ratings of variety performance should be based on objective measures of grower- and market-oriented traits and 2) shank length × total ear length and ear height × plant height relationships may be used to improve the efficiency of future evaluations.
Kaitlin Barrios and John M. Ruter
five cultivars of annual sunflower. Whipker and McCall (2000) and Ahmad et al. (2015) determined that 4 mg/pot effectively reduced growth of ‘Pacino Gold’. Barbosa et al. (2008) observed reduced plant height with increased paclobutrazol
A.A. Csizinszky, D.J. Schuster, and J.E. Polston
Field studies were conducted for three seasons, Fall 1994, Spring 1995, and Fall 1995, on the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-reflective films (mulches) on the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring), the incidence of tomato mottle virus (ToMoV), and on fruit yields of staked, fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The UV-reflective mulches were metallized aluminum (aluminum) and painted aluminum (silver) on either black or white plastic film. The aluminum and silver mulches were evaluated with and without a white (fall) or black (spring) 25-cm-wide painted band in the bed center. Controls were the conventional white (fall) or black (spring) polyethylene mulches. Highest reflected energy (μmol·m–2·s–1) to the plants at 15 cm from the mulch surface was measured on the aluminum mulch with or without a white painted band. Lowest energy was reflected from the white or black controls and from silver on black mulches with or without a black painted band. Whitefly populations in the fall were lower (P ≤ 0.05) on the aluminum than on the silver mulches. In the spring, when whitefly populations were low, whiteflies were more numerous on the black control and silver on white, than on the aluminum mulches. In the fall seasons, the proportion of plants with symptoms of ToMoV transmitted by the silverleaf whitefly were higher on the controls than on the aluminum mulch. In the spring, the proportion of plants with symptoms was not affected by mulch treatments. Yields in the fall were similar with UV-reflective or white control mulches. In the spring, fruit size and marketable yields were greater (P ≤ 0.05) on plants with silver on white mulch than on the control black mulch.
Judy Lee, Miguel I. Gómez, and William B. Miller
regulate plant height and improve plant uniformity and can contribute to more accurate scheduling of flowering dates, meeting market requirements for plant height, and reduction of shipping costs. Although there are general guidelines suggesting the best
Yanhong Lou, Liang Chen, Qingguo Xu, and Xunzhong Zhang
) indicated that morphological variation in tall fescue germplasm was heritable, and that several traits including plant height and dry matter yield had a high narrow sense heritability value. Morphological traits are of great importance in selecting rational
Dipak Sharma-Poudyal, Timothy C. Paulitz, and Lindsey J. du Toit
until harvest. Onion seedlings in each cone-tainer were thinned to two seedlings 3 weeks after planting. Plant height (cm), root length (cm), and total dry biomass (g) were measured for the two seedlings in each inoculated and noninoculated cone