Studies were conducted with Physocarpus, Weigela, Hibiscus, Euonymus, Forsythia, Spiraea, Lonicera, and Taxus to evaluate the effects of warming temperatures on shoot dehardening. Container-grown plants were stored pot-in-pot, allowing shoots to receive natural outdoor conditions until early March. Control plants remained at 0C (32F), while treatment plants were placed in a temperature-controlled chamber at 21C (70F) and given up to 8 days of warming. Controlled-temperature freezing was used to evaluate plant hardiness. Hardiness levels of Weigela, Spiraea, and Forsythia rapidly decreased after 1 day of warming and again after the 7th day. Hibiscus gradually decreased in hardiness until the 7th day. The influence of polyhouse storage, in which plants were stored pot-in-pot, on the dehardening of Weigela, Hibiscus, and Euonymus was compared to outdoor storage, where plants were stored pot-in-pot. The warming effects of the polyhouse decreased the cold hardiness of the species studied. Results of the warming effects will be presented.
Jennifer L. Dwyer, N. Curtis Peterson, and G. Stanley Howell
Bonnie Appleton and Jeffrey Derr
Discs of several materials, including paper, fiberglass, black polyethylene and several woven and nonwoven (spunbonded) polypropylene geotextiles or landscape fabrics, were tested for container weed control. Weed growth developed with some materials due to decomposition and lack of proper fit.
One commercially available combination geotextile-herbicide product gave excellent weed control. A slow-release fertilizer was then attached, giving not only excellent weed control but also promoting satisfactory nursery plant growth. This concept of using a geotextile disc as a chemical carrier (a “horticultural collar”) is being further developed.
Mindy L. Bumgarner, K. Francis Salifu, and Douglass F. Jacobs
Container seedling production systems for forest tree nurseries are challenged by the need for judicious water consumption. Subirrigation systems may provide an alternative to overhead systems by mitigating water use, yet remain relatively untested for propagation of forest tree seedlings. We evaluated effects of overhead versus subirrigation under varying media (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 peat:perlite) and fertilization (0 or 1.2 g nitrogen/plant) regimes on nursery development and first-year field performance of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings. Fertilization increased aboveground biomass production and nutrient content, but decreased root dry weight. Relative to overhead-irrigated seedlings, subirrigation increased red oak seedling aboveground biomass production as well as above- and belowground nitrogen content under fertilized conditions. Media had no effect on plant response. Subirrigation increased electrical conductivity (5 dS·m−1 greater) and decreased pH in the upper media zone (0 to 5 cm from top), whereas the opposite effect was found in the lower zone. Nursery fertilization was associated with reduced field survival and growth, which may have been the result of transplant stress resulting from higher shoot:root. Subirrigated seedlings had greater field diameter growth. Our results suggest that subirrigation could serve as a viable alternative to overhead systems in container propagation of hardwood seedlings.
R.C. Beeson Jr.
Three species of woody ornamentals, Viburnum odoratissimum Ker Gawl, Ligustrum japonicum Thunb., and Rhaphiolepis indica Lindl. were transplanted from 3.8-L into 11.4-L containers and grown for 6 months while irrigated with overhead sprinkler irrigation. Irrigation regimes imposed consisted of an 18-mm-daily control and irrigation to saturation based on 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% deficits in plant available water [management allowed deficits (MAD)]. Based on different evaluation methods, recommendations of 20%, 20%, and 40% MAD are supported for V. odoratissimum, L. japonica, and R. indica, respectively, for commercial production. Comparisons of plant growth rates, supplied water, and conversion of transpiration to shoot biomass are discussed among irrigation regimes within each species. Comparisons of cumulative actual evapotranspiration (ETA) to either shoot dry mass or canopy volume were linear and highly correlated. Results indicated there were minimum cumulative ETA volumes required for plants to obtain a specific size. This suggests that irrigation regimes that restrict daily ETA will prolong production times and may increase supplemental irrigation requirements. Thus the hypothesis that restrictive irrigation regimes will reduce irrigation requirements to produce container plants is false due to the strong relationship between cumulative ETA and plant size.
Calvin Chong, Glen Lumis, Peter Purvis, and Adam Dale
Rooted cuttings of `Antonovka' apple, `Lynwood Gold' forsythia, double-flowered kerria, common ninebark, `Goldfinger' potentilla, and `Red Prince' weigela were grown in 2-gal (6-L) nursery containers filled with 1:1 (by volume) of waste compost and composted pine bark, under three fertilizer regimes: 1) liquid nutrients [target concentrations in ppm (mg.L-1): NH4-N, 13; NO3-N, 100; P, 28; K, 120; Ca, 92; Mg, 13; Fe, 1.3; Mn, 0.27; Zn, 0.23; Cu, 0.05; B, 0.22; Mo, 0.05; Na, <50; Cl, <50; and SO4 <300] delivered and recycled twice per day via a computer-controlled multifertilizer injector; 2) same nutrient formula and concentration rate delivered fresh via the injector but without recycling; and 3) Nutryon (Polyon) 17-5-12 controlled-release fertilizer incorporated into the medium at a rate of 11 lb/yd3 (6.5 kg·m-3). With recycled liquid nutrients, all species grew the same or more than with nonrecycled nutrients, and generally the poorest growth was with controlled-release fertilizer. Foliar concentrations of K (all species), N (all species), P (forsythia, kerria, potentilla, and weigela), and Mn (forsythia, potentilla, and weigela) were higher in plants supplied with recycled and/or nonrecycled nutrients than in those supplied with controlled-release fertilizer, while foliar concentrations of Ca (ninebark and kerria) and Mg (apple, kerria, ninebark, potentilla, and weigela) were lower. Compared to nonrecycled liquid nutrients, the amounts of individual recycled nutrients were reduced by (percentage in brackets): NH4-N (30), NO3-N (78), P (76), K (46), Ca (93), Mg (96), Fe (52), Mn (43), Zn (55), Cu (60), B (83), and Mo (66).
Eric Young and S.M. Blankenship
Three percent oxygen significantly delayed and reduced budbreak of fully chilled apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees in a greenhouse. When ambient oxygen levels were restored, budbreak occurred normally. Apple trees stored under 3% ± 1% oxygen at 6C for 35 weeks had no detectable bud development in storage. Budbreak and subsequent shoot growth were normal after the trees had been removed from storage.
Daniel C. Milbocker
Pyrus calleryana, Decne, `Aristocrat'; Cryptomeria japonica, D. Don; Populus maximowiczii, Henry × `Androscoggin' and Koelreuteria bipinnata, Franch. trees were grown in low-profile containers. The optimum height and width of these containers was 20 to 30 cm and 84 cm, respectively. Pine bark and mixtures containing 50% or more of pine bark were preferable to mixtures containing leaf mold for filling the containers because the former weigh less. Roots penetrated pine bark mixtures better than sphagnum peat mixtures and also retained their shape better during transplanting. When grown in low-profile containers, trees grew fibrous root systems; after transplanting, roots grew downwardly radial and trees were able to withstand extremely difficult landscape conditions.
Sally M. Schneider and Bradley D. Hanson
California phytosanitary regulations for fruit and nut plant nursery production require preplant fumigation with specified treatments for control of parasitic nematodes before nursery stock can be certified and sold [ California Department of Food
S.M. Schneider, B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrestha, T.J. Trout, and S. Gao
markets. Fruit and nut nursery trees for planting into commercial orchards and vineyards in California must meet a regulation that states it is “mandatory that nursery stock for farm planting be commercially clean with respect to economically important
Robert F. Brzuszek and Richard L. Harkess
providing the highest number of responses (58.3%). As Texas has a higher number of native plants being produced (21–40% of total nursery stock compared with 0–20% for all other states) and leads in higher sales dollars, this state may be known for