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Thanidchaya Puthmee, Kenji Takahashi, Midori Sugawara, Rieko Kawamata, Yoshie Motomura, Takashi Nishizawa, Toshiyuki Aikawa, and Wilawan Kumpoun

polymers and work as a barrier to moisture loss ( Schreiber, 2010 ). Optical microscope observations of vertical sections revealed that lignification of the phellem tissue occurred mainly after stage III, regardless of cultivar ( Fig. 5 ). This was also

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Xiaobo Song, Shengke Xi, Junpei Zhang, Qingguo Ma, Ye Zhou, Dong Pei, Huzhi Xu, and Jianwu Zhang

mother plant, the new tips were removed and used as the cuttings (half-lignification state, 5–7 compound leaves expanded); and d) the cutting bases were dipped in the anhydrous ethanol IBA solutions (5 mg/mL) for 2–3 s. Then, the cuttings were placed in

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Kunkun Li, Weiqi Dong, Yun Zhao, Hongxia Xu, Junwei Chen, and Changjie Xu

diseases such as cough and asthma and counteracting diabetes, cancer, and allergy ( Liu et al., 2016 ). Moreover, loquat fruit has contrasting differences in lignification and carotenoid accumulation between cultivars ( Fu et al., 2014 ; Xu et al., 2014

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Arthur Villordon, Julio Solis, Don LaBonte, and Christopher Clark

of lignification. It was determined early on that lignification rendered an adventitious root incapable of becoming a storage root and that storage root number was determined within this time period ( Togari, 1950 ; Wilson and Lowe, 1973 ). This

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Nicholas A. George, Kenneth V. Pecota, Blake D. Bowen, Jonathan R. Schultheis, and G. Craig Yencho

the failure of mother roots to enlarge when uncovered was found to be epidermal thickening and lignification caused by sunlight exposure ( Akita and Kobayashi, 1962 ; Akita et al., 1962a ). The sun exposure method is probably not a viable cultural

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Xiaoling He, Susan C. Miyasaka, Maureen M.M. Fitch, Sawsan Khuri, and Yun J. Zhu

by OxO-mediated breakdown of oxalate, resulting in hypersensitive cell death and antimicrobial activity ( Peng and Kuc, 1992 ). Second, H 2 O 2 -mediated lignification of cell walls forms effective barriers against fungal penetration ( Schweizer et al

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Olga Dichala, Ioannis Therios, Magdalene Koukourikou-Petridou, and Aristotelis Papadopoulos

). Poor Ni nutrition potentially affects primary metabolism in such a way that endogenous availability of certain aminoacids, organic acids, and acetyl-CoA can potentially limit lignification ( Bai et al., 2006 ). Cracking or splitting of fruits is a

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Raquel Enedina Medina-Carrillo, Samuel Salazar-García, Jorge Armando Bonilla-Cárdenas, Juan Antonio Herrera-González, Martha Elva Ibarra-Estrada, and Arturo Álvarez-Bravo

adaptation of plants to the environment and in counteracting stress conditions ( Ahmed et al., 2014 ). The defense mechanisms of plants can be structural, such as cell wall thickening or lignification, or biochemical such as the production of PCs

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Sarah M. Bharath, Christian Cilas, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

), whereas fruit with a pebbled epidermis revealed lignified cells and increased suberin levels immediately at the pebbled zones (red-stained regions). Notably, larger pebbled areas displayed considerable cell wall lignification and suberized zones ( Fig. 4B

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Ed Stover, David G. Hall, Robert G. Shatters Jr., and Gloria A. Moore

each test tree. Mature leaves from flushes with some lignification on stems were collected on the same dates and were assessed for CLas titer using qPCR. Detached leaf assays with ACP The experiments were conducted using the detached leaf assay