-tilling into living mulches and then direct seeding a vegetable crop may limit yield reductions by limiting competition between the living mulch and vegetable crop ( Masiunas, 1998 ). However, a secondary weed control tactic may be required to control weeds
Jesse Puka-Beals and Greta Gramig
Charlene M. Grahn, Barbara Hellier, Chris Benedict, and Carol Miles
emergence of seedlings has long been the goal of horticulturists as a means of optimizing stand uniformity and maturity in direct-seeded crops ( Fromme et al., 2014 ; Seale and Cantliffe, 1987 ). Low soil temperatures can increase the time to emergence
J.E. Brown, R.P Yates, C. Stevens, and V.A. Khan
Effects of planting methods and rowcover on the production of yellow crookneck squash, Cucurbita pepo L. var. melopepo Alef., were evaluated over 2 years at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, Ala. Summer squash was direct-seeded or transplanted in the field with or without black plastic mulch and grown with or without rowcover. Yield of transplanted squash was significantly increased over the same squash direct-seeded. Neither plastic mulch nor rowcover had an effect on summer squash production. Transplants matured 8 to 10 days earlier than the direct-seeded plants.
Griffin M. Bates, Sarah K. McNulty, Nikita D. Amstutz, Victor K. Pool, and Katrina Cornish
our study, is expensive, and commercially viable rubber dandelion will need to be direct-seeded. However, direct seeding would shorten the growing period by about 2 months (because the transplants are grown in greenhouses before the planting season
Garry G. Gordon, Wheeler G. Foshee III, Stewart T. Reed, James E. Brown, and Edgar L. Vinson III
represented a different block. Okra was direct-seeded into the field on 8 May 2003 and 28 Apr. 2004. A soil pH of 7.0 was recorded in Year 2003 and 6.2 in 2004. Treatments consisted of five mulch colors: black (BPM), white (WPM), red (RPM), silver (SPM) (all
Maria A. Macias-Leon and Daniel I. Leskovar
development when daylength exceeds 11–12 h, intermediate onions between 13 and 14 h, and long-day types more than 16 h ( Brewster, 1994 ). In the Southwestern United States, most short-day onion cultivars are direct-seeded between early September and early
Frank J. Coale, Russell T. Naqata, and Lawrence E. Datnoff
Corky root (CR) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is caused by the bacterium Rhizomonas suberifaciens. Current management strategies involve the use of resistant cultivars and crop rotation. The use of transplants as a method to grow CR-susceptible cultivars in CR-infested fields was recently demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate corky root destruction of root systems of direct-seeded and transplanted lettuce. Direct seeded, and three and five week old transplants of CR susceptible `Shawnee' and CR resistant `South Bay' crisphead lettuce were grown in a naturally CR-infested field. Root systems were evaluated at head harvest maturity. When direct seeded, South Bay developed 104% more total lateral root length than did Shawnee. When transplanted at three and five weeks, South Bay developed 50% and 61% more total lateral root length than Shawnee, respectively. Total lateral root length for Shawnee transplanted at five weeks was 100% greater than direct seeded Shawnee. Comparatively, total lateral root length for South Bay transplanted at five weeks was 58% greater than direct seeded South Bay. Tap root lengths and dry weights were not different among planting systems. Transplanting is a possible method for reducing the impact of CR on lettuce lateral root development.
Matthew T. Rulevich, Francis X. Mangan, and Anne K. Carter
Field studies were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in Massachusetts to assess the effects of transplants, black polyethylene mulch, and polyester spun-bonded row cover on early fruit set and total yield of two squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) cultivars: `C42 × La Segunda' calabaza and `Waltham' butternut. Treatment comparisons included direct-seeded or transplanted squash, with or without black polyethylene mulch, and with or without the addition of a row cover in all combinations. The use of transplants was more effective at stimulating early fruit set and highest total yield than the use of mulch and row cover. The initiation of fruit set using transplants was advanced 9 days relative to direct-seeding. Mulch and row cover treatments significantly advanced early fruit set by 7 and 5 days, respectively, but only in 1998. Yields for both winter squash were 45% higher using transplants compared to direct seeding, 19% higher using mulch compared to bare soil, and 16% higher using row cover compared to no row cover. Total yields were higher for both cultivars in 1999 (warm, dry season) than in 1998 (cool, wet season). Use of transplants with plastic and row cover compared to the use of direct seed with neither plastic nor row cover increased yield of calabaza by 100% in both 1998 and 1999. Only the direct seeded plus plastic plus row cover treatment had yields that were similar to any of the transplanted treatments. Transplant treatments also increased number of fruit per plant and fruit size for both calabaza and butternut.
Natalie R. Bumgarner, Mark A. Bennett, Peter P. Ling, Robert W. Mullen, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz
temperature differentials during some seasons ( Both et al., 2007 ; Knewtson et al., 2010 ). If true, stand establishment of direct-seeded lettuce could be promoted in high-tunnel systems during periods when low external temperatures would suppress it
Melvin R. Hall
Primary vine lengths of `Crimson Sweet' watermelon direct-seeded on 25 March and 24 April 1992 were 62 and 58 cm within 7 and 5 weeks, respectively. Lengths of replacement vines direct-seeded on 20 April and 14 May in the respective plantings were 6% and 5%) while transplants were 46% and 52% of these lengths. Total number of marketable fruit and total tonnage yield from late March plantings (suboptimal soil temperatures) in 1992 and 1993 were enhanced when missing hills were replanted either by direct seeding or transplanting. However, these measurements from late April plantings (optimal soil temperatures) were not influenced by missing hills or replanting methods in either year. Distribution of fruit sizes varied for the two years and there was no consistent pattern to indicate how fruit size influenced total number of marketable fruit or total marketable tonnage yield.