Low input cranberry production was carried out at 4 sites (2 each for the common MA cultivars) to demonstrate: 1. reduced pesticide and fertilizer input; 2. enhanced water quality (compared to standard management); 3. ecomonic feasibility. Presented results: 1. number of insecticide applications reduced 60%, number of fungicide applications reduced 40% (at least half were copper based non-synthetics), broadcast herbicides used at less than 1/2 allowed rate (if at all), fertilizer N input reduced 30% on average; 2. reduced chemical input impacted positively on water quality; 3. crop quality was maintained but yield was reduced. Because the MA cranberry crop was down by up to 40% due to weather-related factors, crop reductions cannot be accurately assigned to cultural and management practices. The project will continue for at least 2 more years.
A. Averill, C. DeMoranville, K. Deubert, B. Morzuch, and S. Edwards
Harold E. Moline and James C. Locke
1 Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory. 2 Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory. We thank J.F. Walter of W.R. Grace & Co., Columbia, Md., for supplying the sample of clarified neem seed oil and reviewing the manuscript. Mention of a
Hidemi Izumi, Alley E. Watada, and Willard Douglas
1 Present address: Kinki Univ., Naga, Wakayama, 649-64 Japan. 2 Research leader, Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory. To whom reprint requests should be addressed. Use of a company or product name by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. does not imply
S.A. Weinbaum, G.A. Picchioni, T.T. Muraoka, L. Ferguson, and P.H. Brown
1 Present address: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, ARS, Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Bldg. 2, Beltsville, MD 20705. We acknowledge the California Pistachio Commission for its financial support. We gratefully acknowledge
Judith A. Abbott and David R. Massie
1 Present address: Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705. 2 Present address: Foss NIRSystems Inc., 12101 Tech Road, Silver Spring, MD 20904. We recognize I. Warrington, New Zealand Dept. of Scientific and Industrial
Matthew Kleinhenz, Annette Wszelaki, Sonia Walker, Senay Ozgen, and David Francis
Successful organic farming requires synchronizing soil-based processes affecting nutrient supply with crop demand, variable among and within crops. We report here on two studies conducted in transitional- (TO) and certified-organic (CO) systems containing subplots that, annually, were either amended with compost or not amended prior to vegetable crop planting. Dairy-manure compost was added at rates providing the portion of a crop's anticipated nitrogen requirement not provided by a leguminous rotation crop and/or carryover from previous compost application. In the TO study, potato (2003), squash (2004), green bean (2005), and tomato (2006) were planted in main-season plots in open fields and high tunnels, and beet, lettuce, radish, spinach, and swiss chard were planted in high tunnels in early spring and late fall. Long-term CO open-field plots (±compost) were planted to multiple varieties of lettuce, potato, popcorn, and processing tomato in 2004–2006. Drip irrigation was used in all TO plots and CO lettuce and processing tomato plots. Treatment effects on crop physical and biochemical variables, some related to buyer perceptions of crop quality, were emphasized in each study. Yield in TO, compost-amended plots exceeded yield in unamended plots by 1.3 to 4 times, with the greatest increases observed in high-tunnel-grown mesclun lettuce and the smallest response observed in potato. Similar results were found in CO plots, although compost effects differed by crop and variety. The data suggest that: 1) compost application and the use of specific varieties are needed to maximize yield in organic vegetable systems in temperate zones, regardless of age; and 2) production phase management may influence buyer-oriented aspects of crop quality.
Judith A. Abbott, Henry A. Affeldt, and Louis A. Liljedahl
. Retired. We wish to express our appreciation to the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) inspectors who participated in this study and to the staff of the Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory, particularly the technicians who worked frantically to
J.A Flore, E. Hanson, J. Johnson, M. Whalon, and G. Bird
Objectives of this experiment are: 1) to compare crop quality and yield, and insect disease populations between orchard systems that employ integrated crop management technologies with conventional systems, and 2) to monitor soil and fruit chemical residues to determine the effectiveness of these systems. In 1990, 6 one-acre plots were established at the Southwest Michigan Research and Extension center, with 1/3 acre of peaches planted in the center of each plot. Plots were separated by at least 200 m. Conventional culture (clean cultivation, ground application of fertilizer, scheduled pesticide application, dormant pruning) and Integrated Crop Management plots (use of fertigation or manure for N, pesticide application based on trap counts, endophytic rye, pheromone disruption of oriental fruit moth and mulch for weed control) were established. In phase I of the project (1990), insects and diseases, as well as crop growth (Reproductive and Vegetative) were monitored. In phase II (1991), soil and fruit pesticide residues will be determined and compared for the three different strategies. This paper is intended to stimulate discussion and only limited data will be presented for the 1st year results.
Neil S. Mattson, Elizabeth M. Lamb, Brian Eshenaur, and John Sanderson
Growers of greenhouse ornamentals in New York State (NYS) have identified the need for improved diagnosis and management of diseases, insects, and media/fertility problems to reduce crop loss and improve crop quality. With the objective of using an interactive small-group format to encourage active learning of topics, our team developed a hands-on workshop model that we termed integrated pest management (IPM) In-depth. In addition, we wanted to deliver the workshop in several locations around NYS to reach growers who traditionally have not attended on-campus programs. Each program consisted of three modules focusing on an insect, disease, or plant culture topic. Participants were divided into small groups that rotated through the areas. From 2009 to 2013, we present 20 In-depth workshops in 14 NYS counties reaching 309 attendees. The project succeeded in its intent to reach growers who had limited access to previous IPM programming; 59% of attendees had not previously attended any type of IPM programming. The majority of attendees (66%) reported that they had learned information they intended to implement at their operations. Additional impacts and challenges of offering this hands-on program are discussed.
Elaine M. Grassbaugh, Mark A. Bennett, and Andrew F. Evans
Successful crop production and optimum yields, regardless of the species, can be accomplished only when maximum stand establishment is achieved. Stand reduction after planting typically results in reduced yields and lower crop quality. Several classes of factors (environmental, edaphic, biotic) contribute to successful stand establishment in crop production and should be considered in growing medicinal plants. Environmental factors (e.g., temperature and moisture extremes) as well as pathogens and insect pests that attack seeds and seedlings may contribute to reduced stands. Soil related factors such as pH, nutrient availability, and crusting may also restrict seedling growth. Understanding the requirements for optimum seed germination and the environmental conditions into which the seed is sown is essential for uniform crop establishment. Vigor tests can aid growers in determining the optimum temperature range for seed germination. Many cultural practices may also influence soil related factors and contribute to successful stand establishment in the field. Seed vigor tests (SSAA, thermogradient results) along with seed treatments and enhancements can assess seed vigor, improve germination and lead to more reliable stands of medicinal species.