`Snow King' peaches (Prunus persica) harvested at commercial maturity were subjected to different carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) atmosphere combinations for a 2-week simulated transportation [0 °C (32 °F)] period after 1 week of cold storage in air (0 °C). In 1998, air or 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% CO2 combined with 3% or 6% O2 were used during shipment. The trial was repeated in 1999, but for this year half of the fruit were treated with a 50 mg·L-1 (ppm) aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) postharvest dip before storage and simulated shipment. In addition, O2 levels during simulated shipment were reduced to 1.5% and 3%. At harvest and after the 2-week simulated shipment, fruit flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and chilling injury (CI) were evaluated. For both years, there were no significant differences in quality attributes among the different treatments after the simulated shipment period. SSC and TA did not change during 5 days postshipment ripening at 20 °C (68 °F). In 1998 all treatments softened rapidly during the postshipment ripening at 20 °C, and were ready to eat [13 N (1 N = 0.225 lb force)] after 3 days. In 1999, both the high CO2 atmospheres during shipment and the AVG postharvest dip slowed the rate of softening during subsequent ripening at 20 °C. With respect to fruit softening, there was significant interaction between storage atmosphere and AVG treatment. AVG-treated fruit shipped under a 20% CO2 + 3% O2 atmosphere did not soften to the transfer point (firmness = 27 N) within our 5-day ripening period, while fruit not treated with AVG and shipped under the same atmosphere softened to the transfer point in 3 days. Control fruit (no AVG + air shipment) softened to the transfer point in 2 days. Our previous work found that when white flesh peaches soften to less than 27 N firmness they become very susceptible to impact bruise injury during retail distribution. We call this critical level of fruit flesh firmness the transfer point. Symptoms of CI, low O2, or high CO2 injury were not observed in any treatment in either year.
David Garner, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Eric Otieza
Dana F. Faubion and Adel A. Kader
California grown `Hass' avocado fruit were stored at 5C, in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 2% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide. Fruit were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 10 weeks, both immediately upon removal from storage and after 5 days at 20C. Severe chilling injury developed in the air-stored fruit after six weeks, while only moderate symptoms were observed in CA stored avocado fruit after 10 weeks. Lipid peroxidation breakdown products increased during storage and ripening in both air and CA treatments. Sterols, sterol esters, glycolipids, and phospholipids were analyzed. There was a shift in composition during storage towards increasingly saturated fatty acids. The fatty acid shift was greater in air, than in CA stored fruit. Results will be discussed concerning their relevance to chilling injury development.
John M. DeLong, Robert K. Prange, Peter A. Harrison, R. Andrew Schofield, and Jennifer R. DeEll
A final harvest window (FHW), expressed as Streif Index coefficients [firmness/(percentage soluble solids concentration × starch index)], was developed for identifying maximum fruit quality for strains of `McIntosh', `Cortland', and `Jonagold' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) following 8 months of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. The Streif Index was calculated during nine preharvest (twice per week) intervals and four weekly harvests over three seasons. The relationship between Streif Index (dependent variable) and day of year (independent variable) of the preharvest and harvest samples was then derived by negative first-order linear regression equations that had parameter estimate (b1) probability values ≤0.0001 for all of the strains. Apples from the four harvest periods were stored in standard CA storage for 8 months and then subjected to a 7-day shelf-life test at 0 °C followed by 5 days at 20 °C. Poststorage quality data were categorized and combined to produce an overall fruit quality rating scale. For each strain, the final harvest (i.e., day of year) was identified as that which directly preceded at least a 10% drop in the poststorage fruit quality rating compared with the first harvest rating. The FHW, expressed as Streif Index coefficients via the regression of Streif Index (Y) on day of year (X), was then calculated as the 3-year final harvest mean with the upper and lower window limits being determined by the standard deviation of the mean. The lower to upper FHW boundaries ranged from 4.18 to 5.34, 4.12 to 5.46, 4.51 to 5.68, 5.23 to 5.99, and 1.38 to 2.34 for Redmax, Marshall and Summerland `McIntosh', Redcort `Cortland' and Wilmuta `Jonagold', respectively. The practical utility of the Streif Index method lies in the ease with which apple fruit maturity at harvest can be evaluated for its suitability for long-term CA storage.
Yiping Gong, Peter M.A. Toivonen, O.L. Lau, and Paul A. Wiersma
Apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Braeburn) harvested from two orchards (A and B) on the same day were stored in air or pretreated in air for 0, 2 (2dCA) or 4 weeks (4dCA) before moving into controlled atmosphere (CA) storage with 1.5% O2 + 5% CO2. During storage at 1 °C for 9 weeks in air and/or CA, changes of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, acetaldehyde (AA) and ethanol (EtOH) concentrations in flesh tissue were assayed in addition to the incidence of Braeburn browning disorder (BBD). Immediate introduction to CA conditions induced the development of BBD with the highest incidence 62.2%, however delaying application of CA for 2 and 4 weeks reduced the incidence of BBD to 38.5% and 27.0%. The development of disorder in grower B was less than in grower A. 2dCA and 4dCA treatments did not influence PDC activity compared with treatment of CA. However, ADH activity and the accumulation of AA and EtOH in treatments of 2dCA and 4dCA were markedly lower than those in CA. The accumulation of AA in grower B was lower than grower A. The results of this study suggest that the delayed application of CA reduced BBD and this may be due to reduced anaerobic metabolism of fruits in the delayed CA.
Kil Sun Yoo and Leonard M. Pike
C. Chervin, J. Raynal, N. André, A. Bonneau, and P. Westercamp
The effects of ethanol vapors, controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, and a combination of both on superficial scald development on `Granny Smith' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) are reported. The major result was that ethanol vapors, applied in cold storage, prevented scald development over a week at 20 °C in apples that had been CA-stored for 4 months, then left for 1 month in cold air storage. Interrupting CA storage aimed to reproduce industry practices when fruit in part of storage rooms has to be sold and the remaining fruit is held in air for later sale. The estimated cost and further development of this method are discussed.
Hidemi Izumi, Tetsuya Nakatani, and Hiroki Ogikubo
`Sunbest' spinach leaves were stored in air or controlled atmosphere (CA) containing 3%, 6%, and 10% CO2 combined with 0.5% O2 at 0, 10 and 20 °C. Carbon dioxide production and O2 consumption of spinach leaves decreased in CA by about 50%, 40%, and 65% relative to those in air at 0, 10 and 20 °C, respectively. The rates in the different CA were similar. The respiratory quotient (RQ) of spinach leaves held in CA was slightly higher than that held in air at 0 and 20 °C. CA inhibited the growth of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria at all temperatures, with the inhibition being greater in 6% or 10% CO2 with 0.5% O2. The ascorbic acid content at the end of storage was higher in spinach leaves held in air than in CA at all temperatures except 10% CO2 with 0.5% O2 at 20 °C. A slight or no off-odor was emitted by all spinach leaves. At 20 °C, spinach leaves held in 6% and 10% CO2 with 0.5% O2 developed more off-odor than those in air. These results indicate that the CA of 3%-10% CO2 and 0.5% O2 was beneficial in reducing respiration rate and microbial growth of spinach leaves at 0, 10, and 20 °C but accelerated ascorbic acid loss at all temperatures and induced off-odor at 20 °C.
Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Kevin L. Goodner, James P. Mattheis, and Jeffrey K. Brecht
Apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. (`Gala', `Delicious', `Granny Smith' and `Fuji')], pretreated or nontreated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 0.6 to 1.0 μL·L–1 for 18 hours at 20 °C), were stored in controlled atmosphere (CA, 1 to 1.5 kPa O2; 1 to 2 kPa CO2) or in regular atmosphere (RA) for up to 8 months at 1 °C. Firmness, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids content (SSC), and volatile abundance were analyzed every month directly or after transfer to air at 20 °C for 1 week to determine effect of 1-MCP, storage atmosphere and storage time on apple quality immediately after cold storage and after simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C. The 1-MCP ± CA treatments delayed ripening and prolonged storage life as indicated by delayed loss of firmness and TA in all four cultivars during storage. The 1-MCP ± CA also slightly delayed loss of SSC for `Gala' but had no effect on SSC levels for the other cultivars. There were differences among treatments for firmness and TA content [(1-MCP + RA) > CA] for `Gala', `Delicious', and `Granny Smith' apples, but not for `Fuji'. These differences were generally exacerbated after transfer of fruit to 20 °C for 1 week. A combination of 1-MCP + CA was generally best [(1-MCP + CA) > (1-MCP + RA) or CA] for maintaining `Delicious' firmness and TA. However, the treatments that were most effective at retaining TA and firmness also retained the least volatiles. The results indicate that the efficacy of 1-MCP and CA in maintaining apple quality factors is cultivar dependent and that 1-MCP + RA may be a viable alternative to CA for optimal eating quality for some cultivars.
Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for 30 or 60 days reduced quality losses for `Jonagold', `Golden Delicious', `Delicious', `Granny Smith', and `Fuji' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). After 30 days `Jonagold' and `Golden Delicious' from CA were firmer, had higher acidity, and were less yellow (more green) than apples from regular atmosphere (RA) storage. `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' were firmer after 60 days of CA storage than fruit from RA. In addition, `Granny Smith' from CA had more acid and were greener than apples from RA. After 8 days of ambient storage, little loss in firmness and no loss in acid content occurred with `Jonagold' or `Golden Delicious' from CA compared to the significant loss in firmness and acid when stored in RA. After ambient storage for 8 days, `Jonagold', `Golden Delicious', and `Granny Smith' retained a freshly harvested apple color with more green and less yellow development when stored in CA rather than RA. In `Fuji', the treatments had no effect except for improved acid retention if stored in CA. A combination of 30 days CA followed by 30 days RA produced `Jonagold', `Golden Delicious', and `Delicious' that were superior in quality to apples from 60 days RA.
L.J. Skog, R.B. Smith, and D.P. Murr
`Fantasia' nectarines (Prunus persica L.Batsch) were either stored immediately at 0.5C or subjected to a 48-h delay at 20C in air or with 5% CO2 in air before storage. Samples were evaluated at harvest and after 18, 25, 32, 39 and 46 days storage in air or in 5% O2 with 0%, 4%, 8%, or 12% CO2. All samples were evaluated at optimum ripeness. A combination of delayed storage and elevated CO2 in storage effectively delayed chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Control of CI increased with increasing CO2 level in delayed and nondelayed treatments. Delayed storage was not effective without elevated levels of CO2 in the storage atmosphere. Fruit that was stored without delay did not soften normally during the ripening period and developed a dry, rubbery texture. The effect was enhanced as CI progressed, resulting in increased firmness of ripened fruit with increased storage time. The delayed storage treatments softened normally during ripening, but CI fruit had a dry, mealy texture. Internal conductivity measurements correlated well with CI development. Off-flavors were detected at the higher levels of CO2 storage.