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Michael P. Harvey and Mark H. Brand

Hakonechloa macra Makino 'Aureola' is an ornamental, shade tolerant landscape grass that grows slowly and commands high prices. Hakonechloa plants grown from four initial division sizes, of 1-2, 4-6, 8-10, or 12-15 tiller buds, were evaluated following a complete growing season (105 days). Based on visual observation, we rated 100% of plants grown from the two larger division sizes to be salable compared with only 30% of those from divisions containing 4-6 growing points, and none from the smallest division size. However, divisions of 1-2 tiller buds produced twice as many new shoots and tiller buds per initial tiller bud as did larger division sizes. To produce salable plants in one growing season, results suggest the use of 8-10 tiller bud divisions, but for propagation and increase of stock material, where it is important to obtain the greatest number of new growing points per initial growing point, use of the smaller division sizes is indicated. Hakonechloa plants were grown under shading densities of 0%, 30%, 50%, or 70% provided by polypropylene shade cloth. Shading increased overall growth and improved the appearance and leaf color of Hakonechloa, but at 70% shade density, plants appeared languid and open. For this reason, 50% shading is recommended for nursery production of Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola'.

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Mitchell W. Goyne and Michael A. Arnold

Growth responses during nursery production in 2.2- and 11.4-liter plastic containers to conventional and alternative media of four species of small trees of limited availability for potential use in urban sites in the southwest United States (Acacia wrightii, Chilopsis linearis, × Chitalpa tashkentensis, and Rhus lanceolata) were compared to that of a commercially available small tree (Fraxinus velutina). Four media combinations, at 3:1 (v/v) of bark: sand (conventional), bark: coconut coir pith, kenaf stalk core: peatmoss, and kenaf: coir, with three fertilizer concentrations (3.6, 7.2, and 10.7 kg·m–3 of 18N–2.6P–10K Osmocote) were tested with each species. All species exhibited commercially acceptable growth (80 to 167 cm mean heights in 11.4-liter containers in 240 days) with near 100% survival in most media and fertilizer combinations with the following exceptions: shoot extension of Rhus lanceolata was reduced by 20 to 30 cm and survival by 20% to 50% in kenaf media with high fertility rates; and Acacia wrightii had acceptable shoot extension but exhibited poor trunk diameter growth across media relative to the other species. Slightreductions in growth of some species were noted with kenaf media and slight increases with coconut coir, but differences were not likely of commercial significance. Kenaf media was significantly lighter (20% to 80%) than bark media, but had elevated initial electrical conductivity (EC) and shrank to 60% to 70% of its initial volume after 240 days. Kenaf: peatmoss media had a slightly lower mean pH (6.34) compared to the other media (pH 6.41–6.49).

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Paula Craig and Janet C. Cole

Wet Earth (WE) is a recycled paper product being tested as a potential plant growth substrate. It is composed of 80% recycled paper, 18% diatomaceous earth, 1% CaO, and 1% humic acid by volume. Use of WE by commercial growers would reduce demand for both landfill space and for slowly renewable resources such as peat and pine bark. Evidence also suggests that WE reduces nitrate runoff. Objectives included: determining effects of WE on plant growth, examining effects of WE on NO3 and NH4 runoff from container plant production, and determining the chemical and physical properties that characterize WE as a growth substrate. Ratios of pine bark to WE tested were 100% pine bark, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1, and 100% WE by volume. Fertilizer treatments included: 100% of the recommended rate of controlled release fertilizer (CRF), 50% CRF plus 50% liquid fertilizer (LF) and 100% LF. Plant heights, widths, and visual quality ratings were obtained monthly throughout the 16-week experiment. Leaf, shoot and root dry weights were determined at harvest. Nitrogen content of roots, shoots, and substrates were determined at planting and harvest, while NO3 and NH4 content of leachate was determined at each irrigation. All substrates were analyzed at planting and harvest for pH, soluble salts, exchangeable cations, and CEC. Changes in volume, bulk density, porosity, and air space were also measured. Plant size and quality varied significantly between substrate mixes. Mortality was significantly higher in mixes containing 75% and 100% WE. Changes in volume, bulk density, and percent air space were also significant and inversely related to WE concentration.

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Richard C. Beeson

Zajicek, 1993 ). Deficit irrigation can reduce irrigation frequency ( Beeson, 2006 ), thereby reducing nursery water runoff and energy consumption. Using deficit irrigation for container production of nursery stock is especially valuable for water

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Michelle S. McGinnis, Stuart L. Warren, and Ted E. Bilderback

Vermicomposting of pig manure is a waste management approach that has been shown to be economically and technologically feasible and yields a value-added end product, vermicompost (VC), that contains plant-available nutrients. The objective of this study was to determine if conventional nursery crop inputs could be replaced by commercially available VC (derived from pig manure) for production of Hibiscus moscheutos ‘Luna Blush’ L. (hibiscus). Hibiscus was grown in 3.8-L containers containing pine bark amended with 11% sand (by vol.), 1.8 kg·m−3 dolomitic limestone, and 0.9 kg·m−3 micronutrient package (PBS) or pine bark amended with 20% VC (by vol.) (20VC). Plants were topdressed with one of three controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) containing only nitrogen (N); N and potassium (K); or N, phosphorus (P), and K. The four treatments included PBS with 17–6–12 (PBS + NPK), 20VC with 17–6–12 (20VC + NPK), 20VC with 17–0–12 (20VC + NK), and 20VC with 17–0–0 (20VC + N). The PBS + NPK treatment, which was supplied with conventional nursery crop nutrient inputs (limestone, sulfated micronutrients, and CRF containing NPK), served as the control treatment to represent the industry standard. All treatments were irrigated to maintain a leaching fraction (LF = volume leached ÷ volume applied) of 0.24. Daily inorganic nitrogen (IN-N) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) effluent contents were determined. Plants were harvested at 35 and 56 d after potting (DAP). Total plant nutrient contents of P, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S), iron (Fe), manganese, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and boron (B) were equivalent or greater for all three 20VC treatments compared with PBS + NPK. However, total plant K content of 20VC + N was less than 20VC + NPK, 20VC + NK, and PBS + NPK. Regardless of lower K content in the 20VC + N treatment, all three 20VC treatments had equivalent total plant dry weight and number of flowers. Furthermore, all three 20VC treatments averaged 58% and 40% greater plant dry weight than PBS + NPK at 35 and 56 DAP, respectively, and 93% more flowers than PBS + NPK at 56 DAP. All three 20VC treatments had similar IN-N and DRP effluent contents. However, the three 20VC treatments averaged 4.3× more IN-N effluent content and 59× DRP effluent content than PBS + NPK. The nutrient use efficiencies for all treatments were similar, in which nitrogen use efficiency ranged from 9% to 15% and phosphorus use efficiency ranged from 7% to 12%. In conclusion, this source of VC provided equivalent or greater P, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, and Cu but less K for plant uptake compared with the industry standard (control) treatment and produced larger plants with more flowers than the control. This suggests that dolomitic lime, sulfated micronutrients, and P can be eliminated as substrate additives.

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Bruce A. Cunliffe

It is common practice to propagate grasses by division in the spring rather than the fall. This is particularly true of warm-season grasses. Production schedules for grasses do not often fit the general production pattern of other herbaceous perennial or woody crops. Five ornamental grass species were studied: Schizachyrium scoparium, Sporobolus heterolepsis, Calamagrostis × acutiflora `Karl Foerster', Miscanthus sinensis `Purpurascens', and Miscanthus sinensis `Variegatus'. Uniform divisions based on species were planted in 4-inch (480-ml) pots, #1 (2780-ml), and #2 (6240-ml) containers. Fall divisions were done between 28 Oct. and 10 Nov. 1997. Spring divisions occurred between 30 Apr. and 7 May 1998. The experiment is a randomized complete-block design blocking on pot size. All containers were over-wintered under the same cover of plastic, straw, and plastic. Plants were evaluated for post-winter survival and growth. Plants were given a visual rating (0-3) every 2 weeks to assess salability. Spring survival of fall divisions was 99% for S. scoparium, C. × acutiflora `Karl Foerster', and M. sinensis `Purpurascens'. M. sinensis `Variegatus', and S. heterolepsis each had ≈50% survival. Fall divisions reached a salable rating a minimum of 2 weeks ahead of spring divisions. These results indicate that some ornamental grass species may benefit from fall rather than spring handling.

Open access

Damon E. Abdi and R. Thomas Fernandez

irrigation in container production HortScience 26 848 850 Boithias, L. Sauvage, S. Merlina, G. Jean, S. Probst, J.L. Perez, J.M.S. 2014 New insight into pesticide partition coefficient Kd for modelling pesticide fluvial transport: Application to an

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Julián Miralles, Raquel Valdes, Juan J. Martínez-Sánchez, and Sebastián Bañón

container production. In a PIP system, a holder or socket pot is permanently placed in the ground with the top rim remaining above. The container-grown plant is then placed within the holder pot for the production cycle ( Ruter, 1998b ). The Euonymus

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Michael A. Arnold., G. Kim Stearman, and Reed W. Cripps

Rooted cuttings of Acer rubrum `Red Sunset' grown in containers treated on interior surfaces with 100 g Cu(OH)2/liter white interior latex paint, or left untreated, were root pruned or not root pruned and planted in a field plot. A pseudo-bareroot treatment, trees from untreated containers shaken free of media, was included. Height (115 vs. 108 cm) and caliper (12.0 vs. 10.7 mm) at transplant was slightly greater for copper treated trees than for untreated trees. Leaf water potentials (LWP) at transplant were similar for all treatments. Mid-day LWP of trees transplanted from untreated containers tended to be lower than that of trees grown in copper treated containers at days 3, 14, 28, and 53 after transplant. Pseudo-bareroot trees had the most negative mid-day and pre-dawn LWP through day 92. Soil water potentials were from -0.01 to -0.03MPa.

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William J. Foster, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Terril A. Nell

Rooted stem cuttings of Ilex crenata Thunb. `Rotundifolia' were grown in a controlled-environment growth chamber. Root-zone temperatures were controlled with an electric system. Shoot carbon exchange and root respiration rates were determined in response to root-zone temperatures of 28, 32, 36, and 40C for 6 hour·day–1 for 7 days. Photosynthesis was decreased by root zones ≥ 32C, while root respiration increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Decreased photosynthetic rates were not due to increased stomatal resistance.