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Kirk D. Larson and Douglas V. Shaw

Performance characteristics for 12 strawberry genotypes (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) from the Univ. of California, Davis, strawberry improvement program were evaluated in annual hill culture, with and without preplant soil fumigation using a mixture of 67 methyl bromide:33 chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) (wt/wt, 392 kg·ha-1). Plants were established at two locations; one trial followed several cycles of strawberry plantation, whereas the other had not been cropped with strawberries for 20 years. Plant mortality was <3% and did not differ between soil treatments; thus, the main effects of fumigation treatment in these experiments were due to sublethal effects of soil organisms. Plants grown in nonfumigated soil produced 51% and 57% of the fruit yield of plants grown in fumigated soil for soils with and without a recent history of strawberry cultivation, respectively. Nonfumigated treatments also had reduced fruit weight and uniformly lower vegetative vigor during the early phases of plantation establishment. Significant genotype x fumigation interactions were not detected for any of the growth or performance traits at either location. Further, the proportion of variance attributable to interactions was at most 25% of that due to variation among genotypes, even for this highly selected population. Genotypic correlations for traits evaluated in different fumigation treatments ranged from 0.80 to 1.00; thus, selection in either soil environment is expected to affect largely the same sets of genes. These results demonstrate that strawberry productivity is substantially increased by fumigation, even in the absence of lethal pathogens or a discernible replant problem. More importantly, there appears to be little opportunity for developing cultivars specifically adapted to sublethal effects of nonfumigated soils.

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Kirk D. Larson and Douglas V. Shaw

Bare-rooted `Camarosa' strawberry runner plants were established in a fruit production field on 1 Nov. 1993 using annual hill culture and two preplant soil fumigation treatments: 1) a mixture of 2 methyl bromide: 1 chloropicrin (wt: wt, 392 kg·ha-1) injected into the soil before forming raised planting beds (MBC); or 2) nonfumigation (NF). At about 33-day intervals between mid-January and the end of May, 20 plants were destructively sampled from each treatment to determine leaf dry mass (LDM), crown dry mass (CDM), root dry mass (RDM), and shoot: root dry mass (SRDM) ratios. Plant mortality was <0.2% throughout the study and did not differ with soil treatment. Regardless of sampling date, LDM, CDM, and RDM were greater for MBC plants than for NF plants, although treatment differences were not always significant. During the first 143 days, NF plants allocated a greater proportion of dry matter to roots than to shoots compared to MBC plants, indicating that roots are a stronger sink for photoassimilate in nonfumigated than in fumigated soils. However, there was no difference between treatments in SRDM by the end of the study. Fruit yield and a 10-fruit weight were determined at weekly intervals from mid-January until 23 May 1994. Yield and mean fruit weight of NF plants were 72% and 90%, respectively, of that of MBC plants. For both treatments, about one-half of total fruit production occurred between 144 and 174 days after planting (late March to late April). During that same period, rates of dry matter accumulation in leaf, crown, and root tissues decreased for plants in both treatments, but greatest reductions occurred in NF plants. Chemical name used: trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin).

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G.S. Miner, E.B. Poling, D.E. Carroll, L.A. Nelson, and C.R. Campbell

Annual-hill strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) production with black plastic mulch and drip irrigation is gaining popularity in North Carolina. Two experiments (E1 and E2) were conducted on a Wagram loamy sand (Arenic Kandiudult) in 1992 and on a Norfolk sandy loam (Typic Kandiudult) in 1993 to investigate the effects of fall-applied N and spring-applied N and K on `Chandler' strawberry yield and fruit quality. E1 treatments included factorial combinations of banded fall-applied N (0, 34, and 67 kg·ha-1) and drip spring-applied N (0, 0.19, 0.37, 0.56, and 0.75 kg·ha-1·d-1 and 0, 0.37, 0.75, and 1.12 kg·ha-1·d-1 in 1992 and 1993, respectively). E2 treatments included combinations of drip spring-applied N (0.56, 1.12, 1.68, and 2.24 kg·ha-1·d-1) and K (0.46, 1.39, and 2.32 kg·ha-1·d-1 and 0, 0.75, 1.49, and 2.24 kg·ha-1·d-1 in 1992 and 1993, respectively). There were no significant interactions among main effects for any of the measured variables. Market yield maximized with total N at ≈120 kg·ha-1 with one-half banded in the fall and the remainder drip-applied in the spring. Fruit firmness decreased with increasing N rate. Fruit pH and concentrations of total acids and soluble solids were not affected by N treatments, but soluble solids increased as the harvest season progressed. Plant crown number was not affected by N treatment but crown yield increased with N rate similar to market yield. There was no response to drip-applied K for any variable in either year. Based on soil test, fall-applied K (broadcast-soil incorporated) met the K requirements both years.

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Kirk D. Larson, Douglas V. Shaw, and Jerry Sterrett

Three preplant soil fumigation treatments were applied to a strawberry fruit production field in Summer 1993: 1) a mixture of 67 methyl bromide: 33 chloropicrin (wt/wt, 392 kg·ha–1) (MBC); 2) chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane, 336 kg·ha–1) followed by metam sodium (935 liters·ha–1) CMS); and 3) nonfumigation (NF). Bare-rooted `Camarosa' strawberry plants were established in each treatment on 1 Nov. in annual hill culture. Plant mortality was <1%; thus, differences in growth and productivity among treatments were due to sublethal effects of competitive soil organisms. Fruit yields were recorded weekly from 14 Jan. to 23 May 1994. For the NF treatment, early season (January–March), late season (April–May), and total yields were 86%, 69%, and 72%, respectively, of those of the MBC treatment. Early season yields were greatest for the MBC treatment, but late and total yields were greatest for the CMS treatment. From Jan. through May 1994, 20 plants were destructively harvested from each treatment at about monthly intervals for determination of leaf (LDW), crown (CDW), and root dry weight (RDW). For a given date, LDW, CDW, and RDW of plants in the MBC and CMS treatments were greater than those of the NF plants. From January to March, plants in the NF treatment allocated a proportionally greater amount of dry matter to roots, and proportionally less dry matter to crowns and leaves than fumigated plants. In April and May, root: shoot ratios were similar for all three treatments. These data demonstrate the marked influence of soil fumigation treatment on yield and dry matter partitioning of strawberry, and suggest that combinations of chloropicrin and metam sodium may be a viable, albeit expensive, alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide.

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Qing-Hua Gao, Ye Zheng-Wen, Zheng Hong-Qing, and Zhang Xue-Ying

dug plugs (transplants started from runner tips) in each plot were spaced 18 cm apart in the row with 25 cm between the rows in an annual hill plasticulture production system. The 40-cm tall and 55-cm wide raised beds were covered with black plastic (0

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Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Bielinski M. Santos, and Ixchel Hernandez-Ochoa

annual hill system with four classifications of crown diameter between 6.5 and 17.3 mm. They found a positive linear relationship between ‘Chandler’ early yield and crown diameter. However, ‘Camarosa’ did not show similar results, suggesting a possible

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Roy D. Flanagan III, Jayesh B. Samtani, Mikel Ann Manchester, Stephanie Romelczyk, Charles S. Johnson, Watson Lawrence, and Jeremy Pattison

., 2019 ). Most strawberry acreage in Virginia is grown using the annual hill plasticulture (AHP) production system, where plug plants are transplanted in the fall for harvest in the spring ( Christman and Samtani, 2019 ). Similar to surrounding states

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Bielinski M. Santos, Camille E. Esmel, Silvia Slamova, and Elizabeth A. Golden

; Simms et al., 2006 ). It has been found that 60% of the costs of annual hill culture of strawberries can be recovered with the intercropping of muskmelons ( Poling and Lamont, 1991 ). The majority of strawberry growers in Florida plant a second crop

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after 8 weeks of incubation. Strawberry Plants Established with Less Water using Plug Plants Compared with Bare-root Transplants Annual-hill strawberry producers in Florida use bare-root transplants that require sprinkler-applied water during the 3-week

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Brian A. Kahn

the productivity of chilli/dwarf bean ( Capsicum annuum / Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intercropping in Sri Lanka J. Agron. Crop Sci. 180 53 58 Duval, J.R. 2005 Relay-intercropping does not reduce strawberry yield in an annual-hill production system