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Lloyd L. Nackley, Jig Han Jeong, Lorence R. Oki, and Soo-Hyung Kim

induced (e.g., targeted drought) suboptimal conditions. In suboptimal conditions, there is uncertainty whether assimilated carbon will be allocated to storage, reproduction, or defenses ( Bazzaz, 1996 ). Plants allocate biomass to belowground parts for the

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

Caladiums ( Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey, Araceae Juss.) are tropical ornamental aroids often used as potted plants or for providing color in the landscape. The propagules used in pots or landscapes are tubers, the underground storage organ of

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William Sciarappa, Sridhar Polavarapu, James Barry, Peter Oudemans, Mark Ehlenfeldt, Gary Pavlis, Dean Polk, and Robert Holdcraft

reduce risk and help develop an integrated crop management system for organic growers not only in New Jersey (where the trials were conducted), but to use applicable parts and conceptual approaches in any production area. The main objectives were to

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Qin Shi, Yunlong Yin, Zhiquan Wang, Wencai Fan, Jinbo Guo, and Jianfeng Hua

the ratio of total length/root DW and surface area/root DW, respectively. Root density was calculated as the ratio of root DW/volume. The root/shoot ratio was the result of underground parts/aboveground parts. Root vigor, RWC, nitrogen, and phosphorus

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Marco Fontanelli, Michel Pirchio, Christian Frasconi, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Andrea Peruzzi, Nicola Grossi, Lisa Caturegli, Simone Magni, Monica Gaetani, and Marco Volterrani

., 2009 ; Ulloa et al., 2010a ). Rask et al. (2012) found that grass turf species, such as perennial ryegrass, are difficult to control with physical methods because the parts affected are mainly above the ground. Several authors have tested the effects

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Catherine C. Lavis and Laura A. Brannon

information is important to their overall understanding of an entire irrigation installation project. The instructor points out that the underground utility service lines have been marked as a result of calling the underground utility notification center 48 h

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Fengyun Zhao, Junli Sun, Songlin Yu, Huaifeng Liu, and Kun Yu

used for aeration without extensive increases in cost. Rhizosphere soil microorganisms are the most important and active parts of soil ecosystems ( Abbott and Murphy, 2003 ; Zhu et al., 2014 ) and reflect varieties in soil quality in a sensitive

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Pontia Fallahi, and Shahla Mahdavi

arcades, pools, and fountains testifying to their Persian roots ( Ghavidel, 2008 ). When Alexander the Great conquered parts of the Persian Empire in 334 BCE, he brought back with him new varieties of fruit and other plants, and these materials were later

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Karen Mesa, Sara Serra, Andrea Masia, Federico Gagliardi, Daniele Bucci, and Stefano Musacchi

Nonstructural carbohydrate partitioning in perennial parts of sweet cherry J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 114 969 975 Kozlowski, T.T. 1992 Carbohydrate sources and sinks in woody plants Bot. Rev. 58 107 222 Kwack, Y.B. Kim, H.L. Chae, W.B. Kim, S.H. Lee, Y.B. Kim, J

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Paul R. Fantz

plants used in molecular research projects. Phytography is the descriptive terminology (morphology) of plants and their component parts for the purpose of providing an accurate and complete vocabulary for descriptions, identification, and classification