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Terence L. Robinson* and Christopher B. Watkins

In 2001 and 2002, we imposed a wide range of croploads (0-15 fruits/cm2 of TCA) on 4- and 5-year-old Honeycrisp/M.9 trees by manual hand thinning soon after bloom to define appropriate croploads that give adequate repeat bloom and also the best fruit quality. At harvest each year we evaluated fruit ripening and quality. Samples were stored for 5 months in air at 38 °F and 33 °F and evaluated for fruit firmness and storage disorders. Cropload was negatively correlated with tree growth, return bloom, fruit size, fruit red color, fruit sugar content, fruit starch content, fruit firmness, fruit acidity, fruit bitter pit, fruit senescent breakdown, fruit rot and fruit superficial scald, but was positively correlated with leaf blotch symptoms, fruit internal ethylene concentration at harvest, and fruit soggy breakdown. There was a strong effect of cropload on fruit size up to a cropload 7, beyond which there was only a small additional effect. Although there was considerable variation in return bloom, a relatively low cropload was required to obtain adequate return bloom. Fruit red color was reduced only slightly up to a cropload of 8 beyond which it was reduced dramatically. The reduced fruit color and sugar content at high croploads could indicate a delay in maturity of but, fruits from high croploads were also softer, had less starch and greater internal ethylene. It that excessive croploads advance maturity. Overall, croploads greater than 10 resulted in no bloom the next year, and poor fruit size, color and flavor, but these fruits tended to have the least storage disorders. Moderate croploads (7-8) resulted in disappointing return bloom and mediocre fruit quality. For optimum quality and annual cropping, relatively low croploads of 4-5 were necessary.

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Jun Song, Weimin Deng, Randolph M. Beaudry, and Paul R. Armstrong

Trends in chlorophyll fluorescence for `Starking Delicious', `Golden Delicious' and `Law Rome' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit were examined during the harvest season, during refrigerated-air (RA) storage at 0 °C, following RA and controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage, and during a poststorage holding period at 22 °C. Fluorescence parameters of minimal fluorescence (Fo), maximal fluorescence (Fm), and quantum yield [(Fm-Fo)/Fm, otherwise denoted as Fv/Fm] were measured. During `Starking Delicious' fruit maturation and ripening, Fv/Fm declined with time, with the rate of decline increasing after the ethylene climacteric. During RA storage, all fluorescence parameters remained constant for approximately 2 weeks, then steadily declined with time for `Starking Delicious' fruit. Superficial scald was detected after Fv/Fm had declined from an initial value of 0.78 to ≈0.7. Fv/Fm was consistently higher for CA-stored fruits than for RA-stored fruits. We were able to resegregate combined populations of “high-quality” (CA) and “low-quality” (RA) `Law Rome' fruit with 75% accuracy using a threshold Fv/Fm value of 0.685, with only 5% RA-stored fruit incorrectly identified as being of high quality. During a poststorage holding period, Fo, Fm, and Fv/Fm correlated well with firmness for `Starking Delicious', but not for `Golden Delicious' fruit, which were already soft. Fo and Fm were linearly correlated with hue angle for 'Golden Delicious' fruit, decreasing as yellowness increased. The accuracy, speed of assessment, and light-based nature of fluorescence suggests that it may have some practical use as a criterion to assist in sorting apple or other chlorophyll-containing fruit or vegetables on commercial packing lines.

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James P. Mattheis

‘d’Anjou’ pears can develop the peel disorder superficial scald (scald) ( Chen, 2016 ), and this defect can be prevented by 1-MCP application after harvest ( Argenta et al., 2003 ; Calvo, 2003 ; Chen and Spotts, 2006 ). Although 1-MCP treatment

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James Mattheis and David R. Rudell

soluble solids content, include development of peel greasiness, peel yellowing, and senescent disorders ( Watkins et al., 2004 , 2005 ). ‘Honeycrisp’ is susceptible to the chilling disorders soft scald and soggy breakdown ( Tong et al., 2003 ), but the

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Cindy B.S. Tong, Hsueh-Yuan Chang, James J. Luby, David Bedford, Benham E.L. Lockhart, Roy G. Kiambi, and Dimitre Mollov

storage ( Smock, 1977 ). Common examples of these disorders include superficial scald, soft scald, bitter pit, soggy breakdown, water core, and various types of flesh browning. Prestorage treatment, such as diphenylamine (DPA) dips, 1-methylcyclopropene (1

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Carolina Contreras, Nihad Alsmairat, and Randy Beaudry

). The low-temperature disorders [i.e., chilling injuries (CIs)] described for ‘Honeycrisp’ have been diagnosed as soggy breakdown and soft scald (also known as ribbon scald or deep scald) as described by Plagge (1925 , 1929 ) and Ramsey et al. (1917

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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

to a number of physiological disorders including bitter pit, soft scald, soggy breakdown, low temperature breakdown, and senescent breakdown ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010 ; DeLong et al., 2006 ; Moran et al., 2009 ; Rosenberger et al., 2004

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Yan Wang

heart J. Sci. Food Agr. 82 1007 1013 Fan, X.T. Mattheis, J.P. 1999 Development of apple superficial scald, soft scald, core flush, and greasiness is reduced by MCP J. Agr. Food Chem. 47 3063 3068 Franck, C. Baetens, M. Lammertyn, J. Scheerlinck, N

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

Development of apple superficial scald, soft scald, core flush and greasiness is reduced by MCP J. Agr. Food Chem. 47 3063 3068 Ferenczi, A. Song, J. Tian, M. Vlachonasios, K. Dilley, D. Beaudry

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Jennifer DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam

.M. Mattheis, J.P. 1999a 1-Methylcyclopropene inhibits apple ripening J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124 690 695 Fan, X. Mattheis, J.P. Blankenship, S.M. 1999b Development of apple superficial scald, soft scald, core flush, and greasiness is reduced by MCP J. Agr