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Patricia Millner, Sara Reynolds, Xiangwu Nou, and Donald Krizek

The increasing use of plastic film-covered structures such as high and low tunnels in many areas of the United States have enabled growers to extend the cropping season with earlier spring planting and later fall harvesting without extensive

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Tej P. Acharya, Gregory E. Welbaum, and Ramón A. Arancibia

systems to extend the growing season ( Lamont, 2005 ). Although farmers use protected cultivation systems for warm season vegetables, LTs can also benefit cool season vegetable crops by increasing early vegetative growth, reducing ET and possibly

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Kaitlyn M. Orde and Rebecca Grube Sideman

associated with greater yields and an extended fruiting season, especially in the mid-Atlantic region where temperatures are milder than the northeastern United States ( Condori et al., 2017 ; Lewers et al., 2017 ; Van Sterthem et al., 2017 ). Given these

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Hans Christian Wien

extending the growing season at both ends, protecting the growing plants from rain and wind and modifying the interior environment to reduce plant disease pressure ( Wien and Pritts, 2008 ). Use of these structures has been most widespread in Asia and in the

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Linda M. Boyd and Andrew M. Barnett

allocate ≈50% of annual newly fixed biomass to fruit each season ( Boyd et al., 2010 ; Clark and Smith, 1992 ). This figure is relatively low compared with some perennial fruit crops; in apples, for example, 70% of annually fixed biomass is allocated to

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Elsa Sánchez, Thomas Butzler, Lee Stivers, Robert Pollock, Timothy Elkner, Steven Bogash, and William Lamont

, 1998 ) rendering them unsaleable. Avenger and Emerald Jewel were consistently late-season cultivars over the four site years. These two cultivars along with Blue Wind may be good options for extending the growing season. ‘Blue Wind’ heads had a blue

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Bekele G. Abeyo, Robert C. Shearman, Roch E. Gaussoin, Leonard A. Wit, Desalegn D. Serba, and Ugur Bilgili

buffalograss turf, especially in northern climates and intensively used turf sites, like golf course fairways and sports fields ( Shearman et al., 2004 ). Overseeding cool-season grasses into warm-season grasses to temporarily extend turfgrass performance in

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, and Richard L. Harkess

. Gardens, 2018 ). Multiple blooming seasons require continuous plant growth and nutrient supply. Plant nutrient uptake is subject to a number of factors such as growth rate, climate, and cultivating conditions ( Bi et al., 2007b ; Gastal and Lemaire, 2002

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Edward E. Carey, Lewis Jett, William J. Lamont Jr, Terrance T. Nennich, Michael D. Orzolek, and Kimberly A. Williams

awareness of the potential value of high tunnels for early or extended season production of fruit, vegetable, and flowers of outstanding quality. Because of their low construction and operating costs, it is common for producers to recover their investment

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Kelly Gude, Cary L. Rivard, Sara E. Gragg, Kimberly Oxley, Petros Xanthopoulos, and Eleni D. Pliakoni

of 5 °C warmer crowns in comparison with open-field plants ( Kadir et al., 2006 ). High tunnels can substantially improve marketable yields, shelf life, and extend the harvest season for strawberry fruit ( Belasco et al., 2013 ; Kadir and Carey, 2004