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Shuyang Zhen and Marc W. van Iersel

, this information has seldom been used to examine how the supplemental light use efficiency changes with changing PPF and how supplemental lighting can be optimized for different species. van Iersel and Gianino (2017) reported that plants with

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, and Orville C. Baldos

, emersion in boiling water and exposing seeds to low RH conditions ( Baskin et al., 2004 ). Baskin suggests that storage can be used as a dormancy-breaking treatment, but it can also play a fundamental role in optimizing seed longevity. To maximize the

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Jaime Barros da Silva Filho, Paulo Cezar Rezende Fontes, Paulo Roberto Cecon, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, Milton E. McGiffen Jr., and Jonathan F. Montgomery

and mist cooling systems to optimize product application (insecticide, herbicide)—droplet size, spray angle, and avoiding wetting the floor, for example. When we chose antidrip misting nozzles, we thought that these benefits could improve the

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Susannah Amundson, Dennis E. Deyton, Dean A. Kopsell, Walt Hitch, Ann Moore, and Carl E. Sams

ways to increase yield. Greenhouse tomato production requires many environmental, cultural, and biological practices to optimize production and fruit quality. Plant density and pruning methods are two important cultural approaches to increase yield. It

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Ramón A. Arancibia, Cody D. Smith, Don R. LaBonte, Jeffrey L. Main, Tara P. Smith, and Arthur Q. Villordon

market for jumbo and canner grades is primarily the processing industry. Because of the differences in size and quality standards for the processing industry vs. the fresh market, diverse production strategies may be necessary to optimize returns. In the

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Esther Giraldo, Margarita Lopez-Corrales, and Jose Ignacio Hormaza

germplasm bank from collections in Aragon (northern Spain). The results obtained in this work indicate that SSRs are excellent codominant markers to optimize fig germplasm management, allowing distinction of synonyms and homonyms and studies of conserved

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Inmaculada Moreno-Alías, Hava F. Rapoport, Rafael López, Lorenzo León, and Raúl de la Rosa

percentage of plants with a short juvenile period and testing the applicability of the early selection criterion for juvenile period ( De la Rosa et al., 2006 ) to different seedling ages. In particular, we attempt to define more precisely and optimize the

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Catherine S. Fleming, Mark S. Reiter, Joshua H. Freeman, and Rory Maguire

enough water applied to treatments 0.0 × ET and Tens-60 to optimize yields ( Table 2 ), and therefore, residual NO 3 -N was greater in those treatments. In Fall 2010, significant differences between treatments were observed to 20 inches. As seen in Spring

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Kyoung-Shim Cho, Hyun-Ju Kim, Sang-Mi Moon, Hyun-Gu Choi, and Young-Sang Lee

Traditionally fatty acid composition used to be analysed by GC and the sample preparation consisted of lipid extraction from sample and subsequent methyl esters preparation, which are time-consuming and cumbersome. As an alternative, simultaneous extraction/methylation methods are being developed for rapid and simplified sample preparation. To optimize one-step extraction/methylation method for analysis of fatty acid composition in brown rice and adlay seeds, various factors, such as sample to reaction solution ratio, reaction time and temperature, and shaking intensity, were altered and resultant fatty acid composition data were evaluated in comparison with previous reports. The ratio of sample weight to reaction solution volume was the most critical factor in that higher sample to reaction solution ratio caused overestimation of palmitic acid and linoleic acid composition, resulting in underestimation of oleic acid. Lower reaction temperature also induced overestimation of linoleic acid and underestimation of oleic acid. Reaction duration and the intensity of shaking prior to and during the reaction, however, induced no significant changes in analysis results. In conclusion, the optimum condition for brown rice was mixing 5 grains (about 0.2 g) of brown rice with 680 μL of methylating mixture and 400 μL of heptane, followed by reaction at 80 °C for 2 hours.

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos, and Ruijun Qin

Seed dormancy is an evolutionary adaptation for increasing seedling survival by delaying germination and is found in many families of seed plants. Although dormancy is ecologically important, it becomes problematic during agronomic production and restoration. Torrid panicgrass (Panicum torridum) is a native Hawaiian annual grass that has been identified as a re-vegetation candidate for seasonally dry areas. Torrid panicgrass seed appears to possess a nondeep to intermediate physiological dormancy. This research aimed to characterize dormancy relief parameters by 1) evaluating exogenous hormonal, reactive oxygen intermediates, and simulated combustion product treatments; and 2) determining optimized storage conditions of relative humidity (RH) and temperature over a 10-month duration. Results indicate that all exogenous chemical treatments tested were not effective at relieving the dormancy present in torrid panicgrass. Optimal storage conditions to relieve dormancy were found with seeds equilibrated to 12% RH, stored at 30 °C for a period of 8 months resulting in 55% germination. Maintenance of viability for long-term storage up to 10 months was best achieved with seeds stored at 12% RH at 10, 20, or 30 °C.