study ( Li et al., 2019 ). However, the evaporative cooling effect as a result of sidewall water loss may be beneficial for plant root growth and survival at locations with hot summer conditions ( Nambuthiri et al., 2015 ). In addition, the lighter color
Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, and Richard L. Harkess
P. Parchomchuk and M. Meheriuk
Pulsed application of overtree irrigation for evaporative cooling of `Jonagold' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) reduced visible solar injury by 15.8% (1991) and 9.4% (1992). Maximum fruit surface temperature was reduced by 8.1 °C on a day when the average surface mean of nonsprayed fruit rose to 45.6 °C. Air heated more slowly than the exposed fruit surface and was cooled only 1 to 2 °C by overtree irrigation. Cooling did not affect fruit size, firmness, or redness but reduced soluble solids concentration and increased titratable acidity. Storage breakdown was unaffected in the first year but was reduced by 6.0% in the second year.
Hiromi Toida, Toyoki Kozai, Handarto, and Katsumi Ohyama
Fogging systems are still not widely used for greenhouse cooling, primarily due to their low fog: evaporation ratio, resulting in a low cooling efficiency and a high risk of pathogen expansion caused by excess wetness of plant foliage. The fogging is operated intermittently because of these problems. Consequently, the air temperature and relative humidity fluctuates inside the greenhouse. If nozzles with a high fog: evaporation ratio are employed, the fogging can be operated continuously. By continuous fogging, steady air temperature and relative humidity can be achieved inside the greenhouse. In our previous study under indoor conditions, a high fog: evaporation ratio was achieved by installing two small fans close to a conventional upright nozzle in order to obtain an upward air stream. The objective of this study was to draw a comparison between the environmental conditions inside a greenhouse with the continuous fogging with small fans and that with the conventional intermittent fogging without fans. Reduced fluctuation of the air temperature and relative humidity inside the greenhouse were observed in the case of continuous fogging as compared with that observed in the case of intermittent fogging. The air temperature inside the greenhouse during cooling was lower than that before cooling in both methods. In the case of continuous fogging, the adjustment of the amount of fogged water will provide the desired environmental conditions inside the greenhouse.
Jack W. Buxton and John N. Walker
Natural-light growth chambers constructed within a greenhouse compartment were equipped with a ventilation/circulation system, two stages of heating, and evaporative cooling. Air drawn from the greenhouse compartment continuously ventilated the chambers; the air was heated or cooled to the set-point temperature. A computer-controlled environmental system maintained uniform temperatures within the chambers and maintained the temperature within ±1C of the set point at night and during periods of low solar radiation; during higher solar radiation periods, control was not as precise. Carbon dioxide concentration was accurately maintained, and the photosynthetic photon flux from supplemental high-pressure sodium lamps was ≈200 μmol·m-2·s-1. The natural-light growth chambers provide a means for studying the interactive effects of temperature, light, and other environmental variables in experiments to increase production efficiency.
Robert W. Langhans and Mauricio Salamanca
With the primary objective of assuring food safety at the production level, a HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) plan was developed and implemented in an 8000-ft2 greenhouse producing 1000 heads of lettuce per day in Ithaca, N.Y. The plan was developed following the HACCP principles and application guidelines published by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (1997). The CEA glass greenhouse uses both artificial high-pressure sodium lamps and a shade curtain for light control. Temperature is controlled via evaporative cooling and water heating. Lettuce plants are grown in a hydroponic pond system and are harvested on day 35 from day of seeding. Known and reasonable risks from chemical, physical, and microbiological hazards were defined during the hazard analysis phase. Critical control points were identified in the maintenance of the pond water, the operation of evaporative coolers, shade curtains, and during harvesting and storage. Appropriate prerequisite programs were implemented before the HACCP plan as a baseline for achieving minimum working conditions. Proper critical limits for some potential hazards were established and monitoring programs set up to control them. Postharvest handling was setup in an adjacent head house that was adapted as a food manufacturing facility according to New York State Dept. of Agriculture and Markets standards. Potential applications will be discussed.
William R. Feldman and Alex X. Niemiera
Determination of water needed for good function of established groundcovers in the Southwest is important in creating well-adapted, sustainable urban landscapes in this semi-arid region. Myoporum parvifolium from Australia and Dalea greggi from the Chihuahua Desert were tested at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of evaporation from an adjacent class A pan. Myoporum grew most at the higher irrigation regimes, but actually performed best at the lowest irrigation level, growing less than those given more water, but showing better color and vigor. Infrared leaf temperature data showed that lowest irrigation regime plants still transpired actively and had cool leaves. With Dalea, growth was directly related to water applied, with the most growth at the 100% treatment. All plants survived, but the lowest irrigation regime plants were sparse and showed definite signs of water stress. Infrared temperature measurements indicated increasing water stress as water applied decreased. At treatment onset, the Dalea had not completely covered the soil surface, so 75% of pan evaporation can be considered adequate for establishment of Dalea.
Y. Zhang, J.L. Shipp, and T.J. Jewett
Overhead fogging or misting is an essential technique applied in modern greenhouses for cooling and humidifying. This technique can be used to promote yield and quality of greenhouse crops either by providing favorable environment for the plant growth or by increasing the efficiency of greenhouse pest and disease control. In this study, the effect of high-pressure overhead misting on greenhouse climate and leaf surface microclimate conditions for cucumber crops in a glass greenhouse was investigated. It was found that the temperature of the greenhouse air was lowered by 5-6 °C and relative humidity was increased by 20% to 30% during misting. The temperature of sunlit leaves was slightly reduced in the morning (2-3 °C), and leaf wetness duration was significantly extended by misting. Leaf wetness duration under misting was predominately influenced by light intensity at the leaf level and was modelled as a function of misting period and average radiation intensity. Results of this study can be used to improve the predictions of pest and disease breakout and the efficiency of their control measures. The empirical model developed in this study can be integrated with leaf surface microclimate models to correctly predict surface moisture conditions and evaporative cooling from water films at the leaf surface.
Matthew Rogoyski, Alvan Gaus, Byron McNew, Israel Broner, and Thomas Mourney
A simulator of a control system for evaporative cooling of crop canopies was developed. This development, prior to implementation of an irrigation/cooling system, allowed for experimentation before committing resources to the field system. The project provided insight into problems of modeling interaction between biological, mechanical, and digital systems and demonstrated how specialists from diverse areas can solve these problems. The object orientation methodology and the C++ programming language were tools for development of this simulator. A communication mechanism was devised to facilitate interactions between software entities representing both concrete and abstract objects corresponding to the problem domain. The object-oriented approach to the system development allowed for better communication between team members, irrespective of their background in software engineering. The modular and polymorphic nature of the object-oriented code made it possible to plan for code reuse in future projects. Simulator development using the object-oriented paradigm was found to be preferable over the procedural model used by team members in other projects in the past.
Marvin P. Pritts
Manipulating light, temperature, moisture, and nutrients to favor plant growth and productivity is an important component of horticulture. The technology required to achieve such manipulation ranges from inexpensive, basic practices to elaborate, costly approaches involving the latest engineering advances. For example, pruning and mulching are relatively low-tech methods for improving light interception and soil moisture status in small fruit plantings. At the opposite extreme are glass houses with supplemental lighting, CO2 enrichment, and nutrient film hydroponic systems Of greatest value to small fruit growers, however, is technology that ran be applied in field situations, such as the use of overhead irrigation for maintaining soil moisture status, frost protection, and evaporative cooling. One of the greatest challenges to small fruit growers and rcsearchers is integrating new technology into production systems. The introduction of a new technique for environmental modification usually has indirect effects on other aspects of management, which may require additional technology to compensate for adverse changes while maintaining the favorable change. In addition, unique macro- and microclimates demand and market opportunities, specific solutions, and the result is a dynamic, diverse collage of production systems used by growers throughout the world.
Yuguang Zhao, George C.J. Fernandez, Daniel C. Bowman, and Robert S. Nowak
Cumulative evapotranspiration (ETcum) patterns of 10 commercially available cool-season turfgrass species and cultivars were evaluated under progressive water stress in the semi-field conditions using a gravimetric mass balance method in three studies. At the end of water stress, the cultivars were visually scored for green appearance on a 0 (no green) to 10 (100% green) scale. A Gompertz nonlinear model gave a best fit to ETcum vs. days adjusted for pan evaporation variation. Two of the ETcum attributes (ti, the time during which the rate change in ET is zero, and ETmax, the maximum ET rate) estimated from the Gompertz model appeared to reflect efficient water-use attributes in the turfgrass. Among the physiological screening techniques studied, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and the difference between canopy and air temperature appeared to separate cultivars by drought resistance and water use efficiency (WUE). These physiological attributes were also relatively easy to measure and had high correlations with color score and WUE. Biplot display is a graphical technique in which the interrelationships between the cultivars and water-use attributes can be displayed together. Based on ti, ETmax, color score, and physiological attributes, `Wabash' and `Bristol' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), `Aurora' hard fescue (Festuca ovina var. duriuscula L. Koch.), and `FRT-30149' fine fescue (F. rubra L.) were identified as cultivars with higher WUE.