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Wenhao Dai, Yuanjie Su, Hongxia Wang, and Ceilo Castillo

environmental conditions such as high soil pH and cold hardiness and can be grown in most states of the United States ( Dirr, 1998 ; Hogan, 2003 ). Buddleia davidii , known as butterfly bush, is a perennial landscape plant that can also be used as an annual

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Sandra B. Wilson, Julia Rycyna, Zhanao Deng, and Gary Knox

insufficient to eliminate the invasive potential of a species. Some examples of policy regulating the use of noninvasive cultivars does exist. For instance, the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) approved seedless cultivars of a noxious weed, butterfly bush

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David M. Czarnecki II and Zhanao Deng

production cycles, and is popular among gardeners because it attracts butterflies and is tolerant to droughts and poor soil conditions. Many nursery growers produce lantana, especially in the southern United States. For example, a survey of the Florida

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David M. Czarnecki II and Zhanao Deng

flowers, attract numerous species of pollinators [including at least 24 species of butterflies ( Goulson and Derwent, 2004 ; Schemske, 1976 )], tolerate harsh environmental conditions (droughts, salts, etc.), and have low maintenance requirements. These

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Michelle M. Wisdom, Michael D. Richardson, Douglas E. Karcher, Donald C. Steinkraus, and Garry V. McDonald

such as mowing or weed control. Pollinator decline has been widely documented in recent years and has been associated with habitat and biodiversity loss, wide-spread planting of monocultures, pesticide usage, pollinator pests and diseases, and climate

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Mark H. Brand, Jessica D. Lubell, and Jonathan M. Lehrer

old from rooted cuttings. Spacing within rows was 3 m on center and spacing between rows was 4.5 m on center. Clean cultivation was maintained within rows using hand-weeding and early summer application of glyphosate herbicide. Grass alleyways were

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, Zn, S, and Mg applications reverse whitening and to determine the effects of nutrient application on growth of ivy geraniums. Rooted cuttings of ivy geranium ‘Beach’ and ‘Butterfly’ with whitening were potted on 28 July 2006 into 15 cm pots filled

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Shital Poudyal and Bert M. Cregg

because the pesticide target and crop are the same type of organism (plants). Herbicides can be pre-emergence or postemergence. Pre-emergence herbicides are commonly used in container nurseries and are applied to prevent seed germination and weed emergence

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S. Brooks Parrish, Renjuan Qian, and Zhanao Deng

Lantana is an important ornamental because of its low-maintenance characteristics and prolific flowering. Lantana is also known to attract multiple species of butterflies, honeybees, sunbirds, and hummingbirds with its brightly colored flowers

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Todd J. Rounsaville, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

. Although M. sinensis is an early successional, pioneer species that typically colonizes open disturbed sites ( Ohtsuka et al., 1993 ; Stewart et al., 2009 ; Tsuyuzaki and Hase, 2005 ), it can be a prolific weed in managed landscapes such as roadsides