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Stephen L. Love, Thomas Salaiz, Bahman Shafii, William J. Price, Alvin R. Mosley, and Robert E. Thornton

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential nutrient in the human diet and potatoes are a valuable source. As a first step in breeding for potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) with higher levels of ascorbic acid, 75 clones from 12 North American potato-breeding programs were evaluated for concentration, and 10 of those for stability of expression. Trials were grown in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in 1999 and 2000, tubers sampled, and ascorbic acid quantified. There were significant differences among clones and clone by environment interaction was also significant. Concentration of ascorbic acid of the clones was continuously distributed over a range of 11.5 to 29.8 mg/100 g. A subgroup of 10 clones was analyzed using an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model, to diagnose interaction patterns and measure clone stability. The first two principal component axes accounted for over 80% of the variability. Bi-plot analysis showed `Ranger Russet' to be highly unstable across the environments tested. A plot of Tai's stability statistics found six of the 10 clones to be stable for ascorbic acid expression. Appropriate evaluation methods for ascorbic acid concentration must involve multi-year testing.

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John C. Beaulieu and Jeanne M. Lea

treatment combination (n = 120). All penetrometer and color readings were taken from the sides of each cube that were sliced with a sharp knife, not the soft internal cavity side or the external side peeled by the Muro peeler. Total vitamin C analysis

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D. Mark Hodges and Charles F. Forney

Rapidly declining levels of ascorbate (vitamin C) have been associated with advancing senescence and postharvest quality loss in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). To further explore the association between ascorbate metabolism and senescence, two cultivars of spinach previously shown to differ in their postharvest senescence rates were grown under controlled conditions (18 °C, 14 light: 10 dark photocycle) and harvested 6 weeks after planting. Detached leaves of `Spokane F1' (relatively fast senescence rate) and `BJ412 Sponsor'(relatively slow senescence rate) were bagged and placed in the dark at 10 °C. Samples were removed on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28, and analyzed for activities of L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX), ascorbate oxidase (AAO), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and levels of ascorbate [reduced (AsA) and oxidized (DHA)] and malondialdehyde (MDA) (estimator of lipid peroxidation). Oxidative stress, as estimated by MDA levels, steadily increased in both spinach cultivars during storage, but increased more in `Spokane'than in `Sponsor'. GLDH activities peaked on day 14 for both cultivars and leveled off thereafter, while activities of ASPX, DHAR, and MDHAR declined during storage. ASPX activities were lower in `Spokane'than in `Sponsor'after day 21. No difference in AAO activities was noted between `Sponsor'and `Spokane'during storage. Total ascorbate concentrations declined in both cultivars on day 14 after which no further decreases were noted, while DHA/AsA ratios increased during storage. Early in the storage regime (days 0 and 7), ascorbate levels were lower in `Spokane'than in `Sponsor. GLDH activities may have increased as part of a strategy to maintain the ascorbate pool during escalating oxidative stress. However, decreased levels of ascorbate suggests that, even though ascorbate biosynthesis was increased, ascorbate was being degraded, possibly through hydrolysis of DHA to 2,3-diketogulonate. Initially lower levels of ascorbate (days 0 and 7) and lower activities of ASPX (day 28) in `Spokane' may have resulted in comparatively greater susceptibility of this cultivar to oxidative stress than `Sponsor'.

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Catherine Nicolle, Gérard Simon, Edmond Rock, Pierre Amouroux, and Christian Rémésy

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is ranked among vegetables as the most consumed and the best provitamin A provider. Moreover, carrot also contains vitamins, phenolic compounds, and other antioxidant micronutrients. The influence of carrot genetic background on the content of several micronutrients was investigated. Carotenoids and vitamins (C and E) were analyzed by HPLC in 20 varieties of carrot, and antioxidant activity of carrots was investigated with colorimetric methods (ORAC and Folin-Ciocalteu). There were large differences among cultivars in carotenoid content (0.32 to 17 mg/100 g of fresh weight). In yellow and purple carrots, lutein represents nearly half of the total carotenoids. By contrast, in orange carrots, β-carotene represents the major carotenoid (65%). The concentration of vitamin E ranged from 191 to 703 μg/100 g of fresh weight, whereas the concentration in ascorbic acid ranged from 1.4 to 5.8 mg/100 g. For all these components, dark-orange carrots exhibited the highest values. Significant differences among these 20 varieties were also recorded for mineral and total phenolic compound concentrations. Purple and dark-orange carrots could be preferred to usual carrot varieties to benefit from their specific micronutrients (anthocyanins, carotenoids, or vitamin E). ORAC is a complex reflection of phytomicronutrients but is not tightly linked to vitamin C levels, as shown for white carrots, which are rich in this vitamin.

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Adriana Contreras-Oliva, Cristina Rojas-Argudo, and María B. Pérez-Gago

nutritional source of vitamin C and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties such as flavonoids ( Sánchez-Moreno et al., 2003 ). The necessity of preserving the health properties of citrus recommends that postharvest technologies would maintain both

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V. Fernández-Ruiz, M.C. Sánchez-Mata, M. Cámara, M.E. Torija, C. Chaya, L. Galiana-Balaguer, S. Roselló, and F. Nuez

The characterization of Lycopersicon germplasm for internal quality properties is essential to choose suitable donor parents for breeding programs. When donor parents belong to species of subgenus Eulycopersicon, which are phyletically closer to L. esculentum Mill., the recovery of agronomic traits is faster. When using these materials, a careful selection of donor parents which could improve several internal quality properties allows the acceleration of these breeding programs. In this work, we combine general determinations, such as soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH, total sugars, pectic substances and total protein contents with precise high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), quantitations of individual compounds (vitamin C; citric, malic, fumaric and oxalic acids; glucose, fructose, and sucrose), in order to obtain a more complete characterization of flavor intensity and nutritional properties in Lycopersicon germplasm. The multidimensional analysis of all these variables allows classification of several accessions of L. esculentum Mill. and L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill., according to their usefulness for internal quality breeding programs of fresh tomato. The classification obtained and the comparison of accessions quality characteristics with selected controls show that five of the L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accessions tested can be of great usefulness for being used in breeding for internal quality characteristics. A flavor intensity ≈625% higher than commercial hybrids was obtained in the best accession tested. Some of these L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accessions showed better flavor intensity properties than a high SSC L. cheesmanii Riley control, traditionally used in internal quality breeding. In addition, three of the L. esculentum Mill. accessions tested with medium-to-high flavor intensity value could be useful in advanced stages of breeding programs.

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Yang Chen, Xianzhi Zhou, Yongsheng Lin, and Yucan Zhang

accurately weighed, 50 mL of 2% oxalic acid solution was added, and the mixture was then homogenized using a high-speed tissue grinder for the determination of vitamin C content. Another 50 g of pulp was accurately weighed, 50 mL of pure water was added, and

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Ambani R. Mudau, Mpumelelo M. Nkomo, Puffy Soundy, Hintsa T. Araya, Wonder Ngezimana, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

edible portion). Baby spinach is considered to have a high nutritional value, being a rich source of vitamins C, E, and K; carotenoids β-carotene and lutein; Mg; and several antioxidants such as flavonoids ( Bergquist et al., 2006 ; Bottino et al., 2009

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Loutrina Staley, D.G. Mortley, C.K. Bonsi, A. Bovell-Benjamin, and P. Gichuhi

, vitamins, and minerals ( Schippers, 2000 ). Long Bean is popular in Asian countries, and its pods are similar to that of snap beans but are pencil thin and are harvested when immature before seed fill. Long beans have adequate levels of vitamin C

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Shiva Ram Bhandari, Bo-Deul Jung, Hum-Young Baek, and Young-Sang Lee

., 2006 ). A number of phytochemicals that are present in peppers such as phenolics, vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids may contribute to antioxidant activity and consequently show various pharmacological and nutritional activities ( Balasundram et al