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Su-Young Hong, Kwang-Soo Cho, Ki-Oug Yoo, Jong-Taek Suh, and Dong-Lim Yoo

There are 25 species of aster in Korea. There is a controversy about the taxonomical classification of Aster. The genus Aster was classified into four genera, Aster, Gymnaster, Kalimeris, and Heteropappus, by morphological characters. In order to clarify the phylogenetic position of aster, the nucleotide sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was compared among 11 taxa in Korean native aster. The size of ITS1 and ITS2 ranged from 283 to 286 bp and from 251 to 257 bp, respectively. The size of 5.8S region was 164 bp in 11 taxa. The total length of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2, A. tripolium was shown to be the shortest length, 701 bp; and A. scaber was shown to be the longest length, 706 bp. The G+C content of ITS1 ranged from 47.9% to 51.2% and ITS2 ranged from 52.2% to 55.1%. The range of each taxon was narrow. The total length of the character matrix was 708 characters. Among them, total indel showed 9; in the ITS1 region indel showed 6 it was 67%; and in the ITS2 region, indel showed 3. Most of the indels showed deletion or insertion of only one base pair, but in A. spathulifolius deleted two base pairs and in A. tripolium deleted five base pairs. But in A. yomena, A. hayatae, A. koraiensis, and A. hispidus, the indel was not detected. Phylogenetic trees did not even make a difference inter-genus, but A. yomena and A. koraiensis called genus Kalimeris and genus Gymnaster, respectively; these constituted a clade. A. hispidus called genus Heteropappus was placed as a sister group to the clade of A. ageratoides and A. glehni.

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Robert Lawrence Jarret and Terry Berke

botanical characteristics of C. chinense and the basis for its taxonomic classification are well documented ( Smith and Heiser, 1957 ). However, other than the photographs of C. chinense fruit provided by DeWitt and Bosland (1996) , the literature

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Gayle M. Volk, Adam D. Henk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, and C. Thomas Chao

from those of M. sieversii . The taxonomy of the Central Asian wild apple species is complex. Many species have been identified in the literature and then subsequently renamed ( Korban and Skirvin, 1984 ). In some cases, accessions that are donated to

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David J. Roberts and Dennis J. Werner

of genome size as it relates to legume systematics and taxonomy. Most aspects of legume biology, from ploidy number to floral diversity, can be further examined through the evolutionary relationships that exist among leguminous taxa ( Young et al

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Robert J. Rouse, Paul R. Fantz, and Ted E. Bilderback

Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don [Cupressaceae Bartling, formerly assigned to Taxodiaceae Warm.] is increasing in popularity as a landscape plant in the eastern United States. A taxonomic study of cultivars grown in the eastern United States was conducted. Forty-five cultivars were recognized. Each cultivar bears synonymy, a quantitative morphological description newly described from field data, herbarium vouchers, references to original literature and observational notes. A glossary of taxonomic terms relevant to Cryptomeria is presented. A taxonomic key is presented for segregation of cultivars that should assist professional plantsmen in identification of taxa cultivated in the eastern United States.

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Yuanwen Teng, Kenji Tanabe, Fumio Tamura, and Akihiro Itai

A total of 118 Pyrus sp. (pear) and cultivars native mainly to east Asia were subjected to randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to evaluate genetic variation and relationships among the accessions. Two hundred fifty RAPD markers were scored from 20 decamer primers. RAPD markers specific to species were identified. Clustering analysis revealed two divisions: one comprising cultivars of P. communis L., and the other including all accessions of Pyrus native to east Asia. The grouping of the species and cultivars by RAPD data largely agrees with morphological pear taxonomy. However, some noted incongruence existed between two classification methods. Pyrus calleryana Dcne. clustered together with P. koehnei Schneid., P. fauriei Schneid. and P. dimorphophylla Makino. Pyrus betulaefolia Bge. clustered with P. ×hopeiensis Yu and P. ×phaeocarpa Rehd. A noncultivated clone of P. aromatica Kikuchi et Nakai grouped with P. aromatica cultivars. Pyrus hondoensis Nakai et Kikuchi and cultivars of P. ussuriensis Max. formed a single group. Some accessions from Korea (named Korean pear) had species-specific RAPD markers and comprised an independent group. Most of the Chinese white pears clustered together with most of the Chinese sand pears. Based on the present results, the new nomenclature P. pyrifolia var. sinensis (Lindley) Teng et Tanabe for Chinese white pear was suggested. Most accessions of Japanese pears fell into one main group, whereas pear cultivars from Kochi Prefecture of Japan subclustered with some Chinese sand pears and one accession from Korea. Our results infer that some local Japanese pear cultivar populations may have been derived from cultivars native to Kochi Prefecture in Shikoku region, and that the latter may have been introduced from ancient China and/or Korea.

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Zhe Cao, Zhanao Deng, and Mike Mclaughlin

were suspected to provide the lanceolate leaf trait in some caladium cultivars ( Graf, 1976 ; Hayward, 1950 ; Huxley et al., 1992 ; Wilfret, 1993 ). In caladium taxonomy, morphological and anatomical differences are the primary basis for species

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Doru Pamfil, R.H. Zimmerman, S.K. Naess, and H.J. Swartz

RAPD analysis was performed on 44 species of Rubus. These species included representatives from seven of the 12 subgenera within the genus and several series within the Idaeobatus (raspberries) and Eubatus (blackberries) subgenera. For all species, up to five plants were initially analyzed by two 10-mer primers. The most heterozygous of these individuals was then analyzed using 13 additional primers. Wide band diversity exists among Rubus species; these differences were analyzed using the PHYLIP software program. These differences are repeatable, for example color sports of `Heritage' red raspberry produced identical banding patterns. The genetic similarity between eastern United States blackberries (Eubatus) and numerous species was compared to the ability of these same species to act as a suitable pollen parent for eastern blackberries. These data were used to construct a dendrogram of the subgenera studied here.

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Todd J. Rounsaville and Thomas G. Ranney

, and the Pacific Islands ( Ahrendt, 1961 ). Taxonomic standing of Mahonia and Berberis as distinct genera has been the subject of much debate among botanists and horticulturists. Before the development of DNA-based phylogenetics, morphological

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William G. Hembree, Thomas G. Ranney, Brian E. Jackson, and Mark Weathington

genera would provide a broader understanding of ploidy within Theaceae and help contextualize evolutionary relationships in this family. Taxonomy/Systematics The genus Camellia has undergone several taxonomic revisions ( Prince, 2007 ). Sealy (1958