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Gary R. Bachman and James D. Metzger

Floriculture crops are mostly grown in lightweight potting substrates ( Poole and Conover, 1979 ). These substrates are frequently composed of mixtures having sphagnum peatmoss combined with other materials such as vermiculite or perlite and

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Susan E. Trusty and William B. Miller

Postproduction changes in carbohydrate types and quantities in the leaves, stems, and inflorescences of pot chyrsanthemums [Dendranthema × gramfiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Favor'] placed in interior conditions were investigated. Fructans, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were present in all plant parts. In inflorescences and leaves, an additional unidentified substance was present. All plant parts decreased in dry weight during the postproduction evaluation. This decrease was accompanied by overall reductions in total soluble carbohydrates (TSC) and starch. The appearance of leaves and stems was acceptable throughout the experiment. Leaves lost significant amounts of TSC during the first 4 days postproduction (DPP), due primarily to a 76% decrease in sucrose concentration. After 4 DPP, leaf and stem TSC remained relatively unchanged. In inflorescences, petal expansion continued through 12 DPP. Visible signs of senescence, including loss of turgor, color changes, and inrolling of petal edges were observed at 20 DPP, and by 28 DPP, the plants were determined unacceptable for consumer use. Inflorescences increased in fresh weight, but not dry weight, during petal expansion, then each decreased. Inflorescence TSC fell from 146 mg.g-1 dry weight at O DPP to 11 mg.g-1 at 28 DPP. Reducing sugars accounted for 84% of the inflorescence TSC at 4 DPP, dropping to 48% at 28 DPP. Fructan concentration decreased through 16 DPP and then remained unchanged, while starch levels rose from 25 to 34 mg·g -1 dry weight through 12 DPP, then decreased. Fractans decreased in polymerization during petal expansion. This result suggests an alternate use of fructans and starch as pools of available reserve carbohydrate during petal expansion in chrysanthemum.

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Guillermo Cardoso, Roger Kjelgren, Teresa Cerny-Koenig, and Rich Koenig

Low water landscapes are increasing popular and important in the urban areas of the Intermountain West (IMW). Perennial wildflowers are an essential part of low water landscapes, and are a dominant plant type in IMW native habitats. We compared pot-in-pot (PIP) vs. conventional above-ground (CAG) production of six IMW native wildflower species, Mirabilismultiflora, Aquilegia caerulea, Penstemon palmeri, Polemonium foliosissimum, Sphaeralcea grossularifolia, and Penstemonstrictus in #1 (4-L) containers. Media temperature, container-plant water loss, stomatal conductance, and growth were measured during two production cycles per year over 2 years. Growing medium temperatures in the PIP system averaged 10 °C cooler than in the CAG system. Consistent with cooler growing media, overall water loss of PIP-grown plants averaged 10% lower than plants grown in the CAG production system. Lower growing media temperatures apparently affected transpiration, as stomatal conductance was about 60% higher in the PIP system as compared to the CAG-grown plants. The integrated effect of lower growing media temperatures on plant performance resulted in about one-third greater top and root growth for plants growing in the PIP system compared to those in the CAG system. Pot-in-pot production may be an economically suitable nursery system for producing IMW native perennial wildflowers by reducing water loss and enhancing growth.

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John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Prunus × incamp `Okame' to evaluate the effects of a pot-in-pot production system compared to a conventional above-ground system and cyclic irrigation on plant growth and water loss. Plants were grown in #7 (26-L) containers with a 8:1 pinebark:sand (v/v) substrate. Cyclic irrigation provided the same total volume of water, but was applied one, three, or four times per day. Final plant height and stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, total biomass, and root:shoot ratio were all increased for plants grown pot-in-pot compared to above-ground. Multiple irrigation cycles increased stem diameter, shoot dry weight, and total biomass, compared to a single irrigation application. Multiple irrigation cycles decreased the root:shoot ratio. Evapotranspiration was influenced by production system, irrigation, and date. Amount of water lost as leachate was influenced by irrigation and date. Cyclic irrigation resulted in a two-fold decrease in leachate volume. Soluble salts and nitrate-nitrogen in the leachate were influenced by an interaction between production system, irrigation, and date.

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J. Roger Harris, Alex X. Niemiera, Robert D. Wright, and Charles H. Parkerson

Three experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using Biobarrier, a landscape fabric with trifluralin herbicide-impregnated nodules, of various sizes to prevent root escape of trees from the drainage holes of 56-liter containers in below-ground pot-in-pot (P&P) and above-ground Keeper Upper (KU) nursery production systems. In addition, side holes or slits were cut in some container walls to test the effect of Biobarrier on the prevention of circling roots. In Expt. 1 (P&P), Betula nigra L. `Heritage' (river birch) trees with no Biobarrier had root ratings for roots escaped through drainage holes that indicated a 5-fold increase in numbers of roots than for treatments containing Biobarrier. All Biobarrier treatments reduced root escape and resulted in commercially acceptable control. In Expt. 2 (KU), control and the Biobarrier treatment river birch trees (30 nodules) had commercially unacceptable root escape. In Expt. 3 (P&P), control and 10-nodule treatment Prunus × yedoensis Matsum. (Yoshino cherry) trees had commercially unacceptable root escape, but treatments containing 20 and 40 nodules resulted in commercially acceptable control. Biobarrier did not limit shoot growth in any of the experiments. The results of these experiments indicate that Biobarrier did not prevent circling roots, but sheets containing at least 8 or 20 nodules of trifluralin acceptably prevented root escape from drainage holes in the pot-in-pot production of 56-liter container river birch trees and Yoshino cherry trees, respectively.

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Andreas Westphal, Nicole L. Snyder, Lijuan Xing, and James J. Camberato

produced with a transplant system on plastic mulch ( Hochmuth et al., 2001 ). Seedlings are produced in peatmoss-based, soilless potting mixes in plastic trays. This production system allows for early and rapid establishment of 1-month-old transplants into

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José Antonio Saraiva Grossi, H. Brent Pemberton, and Harvey J. Lang

and thank CAPES (Federal Agency for Post-Graduate Education, Ministry of Education, Brazil) for providing the student scholarship for J. Grossi and Yoder Brothers, Barberton, Ohio, for supplying pot rose plants.

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John M. Ruter

Membrane thermostability of Heritage river birch (Betula nigra L. Heritage) was measured by electrolyte leakage from excised roots of plants grown in pot-in-pot (PIP) and conventional aboveground production systems (CPS). The predicted critical midpoint temperature (Tm) for a 30-min exposure was 54.6 ± 0.2 °C for PIP and 56.2 ± 0.6 °C for CPS plants. Plants grown PIP had a steeper slope through the predicted Tm, suggesting a decreased tolerance to high root-zone temperatures in relation to plants grown aboveground. Since the root systems of Heritage river birch grown PIP are damaged at lower temperatures than plants grown aboveground, growers should prevent exposure of root systems to high temperatures during postproduction handling of plants grown PIP.

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John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Acom a' to evaluate methods for reducing rooting-out problems in a PIP production system. The products tested were Biobarrier™, a geotextile fabric impregnated with trifluralin; Root Control'” fabric bag material; and Spin Out™, a commercial formulation of copper hydroxide (7.1%) in latex paint. Biobarrier™ reduced plant height, shoot dry weight, percent root dry weight outside of the planted container and total biomass compared to the non-treated control. For the control, 7.1% of the total root dry weight was found between the holder pot and planted container compared to 0.2% for the Biobarrier™ treatment. When the holder pot and planted container or the planted container and Root Control™ fabric were both treated with Spin Out™, plant height and shoot dry weight were reduced. Spin Out™ reduced root circling on the sidewalls of the planted containers but not on the bottom of the containers. All treatments except the control reduced rooting-out to a degree that allowed for the manual harvesting of the planted container from the holder pot after seven months in the field.

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R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis

inoculation ( Linderman et al., 2006 ). Furthermore, P. ramorum has been shown ( Linderman and Davis, 2006 ; Shishkoff and Tooley, 2004 ) to survive in potting media infested by sporangia or chlamydospores (simulating inoculum that could be produced on