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Noémi Makovics-Zsohár, Magdolna Tóth, Dezső Surányi, Szilvia Kovács, Attila Hegedűs, and Júlia Halász

European plum ( Prunus domestica L.) is an economically important temperate fruit species and was one of the first crops that attracted human interest ( Faust and Surányi, 1999 ). Its fruits are very popular because it can be used for several

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J. D. Norton, C. E. Boyhan, Hongwen Huang, and B. R. Abrahams

On March 13-15, 1993 Alabama and much of the eastern United States experienced an unusually severe winter storm. This afforded the evaluation of plum cultivar production under cold stress. The highest yielding variety that bloomed before the storm was Bruce 12-4 with 28 kg/tree. Bruce 12-4 is noted for blooming over an extended period of time and producing very heavy yields. The average yield of the top five performers that bloomed after the storm was 51 kg/tree. The lowest temperature recorded at the test site, Shorter, AL was -5C.

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María Engracia Guerra, Ana Wünsch, Margarita López-Corrales, and Javier Rodrigo

plum ( Okie and Hancock, 2008 ; Okie and Weinberger, 1996 ; Weinberger, 1975 ). Although many japanese plum cultivars are either mutations or chance seedlings, others are the result of planned hybridizations ( Boonprakob et al., 2001 ; Byrne, 1989

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Yerko M. Morenol, Anita Nina Miller-Azarenko, and William Potts

Specific Co-operative Agreement 58-3464-7-055 and the Oregon Processed Prune and Plum Growers Commission, The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby

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Moritz Knoche and Stefanie Peschel

cinerea Pers. and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey 1945 ( Borve et al., 2000 ). European plum belongs to the stone fruit group and its drupe has the same double-sigmoidal growth pattern as that of the sweet cherry. It therefore may be

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María Engracia Guerra, Ana Wünsch, Margarita López-Corrales, and Javier Rodrigo

Japanese plum is widely cultivated in temperate zones since its introduction in California from Japan in the 19th century ( Faust and Surányi, 1999 ). The term japanese plum originally was applied to Prunus salicina but currently does not

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Celia M. Cantín, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Kevin R. Day

Plums, like other stone fruit, have a limited postharvest life. They are climacteric fruit and undergo rapid deterioration after ripening, including softening, dehydration, and decay. Commercial storage conditions [0–5 °C and 80% to 95% relative

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David Byrne*, Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David Ramming, and W. Okie

Stone fruits contain a range of phenolic compounds and carotenoids which have been implicated in improving human health. The objective of this study was to characterize the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity (AOA) exhibited in peaches and plums. Twenty-two peach varieties and fifty-three plum varieties with different flesh and skin color collected from fields in California, Georgia, and Texas were analyzed for their antioxidant content and AOA. Total phenolics, anthocyanins, carotenoids were analyzed spectrophotometrically. AOA was evaluated by DPPH. Anthocyanin and phenolic contents were higher in red-flesh than in white/yellow-flesh peaches. Carotenoid content was higher in yellow-flesh [2-3 mg β-carotene/100 g fw (fresh weight)] than in white or red-flesh peaches (0.01-1.8 mg β-carotene/100 g fw). AOA was about 2-fold higher in red-flesh varieties than in white/yellow-flesh varieties. Among the peaches, the AOA was well correlated with both phenolic and anthocyanin content. Among the plums, the anthocyanin content increased with the red color intensity. Although the plums varied widely in phenolic content, the red/purple-flesh plums generally had higher phenolic content (400-500 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g fw) than the other plums. Carotenoid content in plums was similar for all varieties (0.2-2 mg β-carotene/100 g fw). AOA was higher in red/purple-flesh varieties; however, it was well correlated only with the phenolic content in light colored flesh plums. These results suggest that red-flesh peach varieties have a greater potential health benefit based on antioxidant content and AOA as compared to the white/yellow-flesh varieties. Although this trend is not clear over all the plum varieties; the red/purple-flesh plums usually have higher antioxidant content and AOA.

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Peter C. Andersen, Brent V. Brodbeck, and Russell F. Mizell 111

The effects and interactions of water stress and nutrient solution on water relations and concentrations of amino acids, organic acids and sugars in xylem fluid of `Methley' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and `Carolina Beauty' crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) during midday were determined. Container-grown plants were irrigated with water or nutrient solution (i.e., osmolarity = 138 mm) for 15 days, then irrigation was either continued or terminated for the next 5 days. The experiments were analyzed as factorial designs for each species separately, with the nutrient solution and irrigation status the last 5 days as the main factors. Xylem fluid tension increased ≈ 2- to 3-fold and leaf conductance to water vapor and transpiration were reduced ≈ 10-fold by withholding irrigation for both species; plant water relations of L. indica were also influenced by the nutrient solution. For both species, the osmolarity of xylem fluid was not altered by withholding irrigation. The predominant organic compounds quantified in both species were amides (i.e., glutamine and asparagine), arginine, and citric and malic acids. Sugars represented a small proportion (i.e., generally ≤ 1%) of total osmolarity. Irrigation altered the chemical profile of amino acids and organic acids to a greater degree than the nutrient solution. Water stress induced a 3-fold increase in total organic acids in xylem fluid of both species. The osmolarity and the concentration of most organic compounds in xylem fluid of P. salicina were not significantly affected by the nutrient solution. Arginine increased markedly in concentration by withholding irrigation or with the application of nutrient solution for L. indica. The concentration of most organic compounds did not vary greatly in response to variations in soil water or nutrient status. In conclusion, soil water-or nutrient-mediated changes in plant water relations exceeded changes in xylem fluid chemistry.

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Olfa Zarrouk, Pilar S. Testillano, María Carmen Risueño, María Ángeles Moreno, and Yolanda Gogorcena

expanding to heavy soils, the use of plum rootstocks is a feasible solution ( Beckman and Lang, 2003 ). Plum rootstocks are generally less vigorous ( Moreno et al., 1995 ), and are more tolerant to waterlogging ( Rowe and Beardsell, 1973 ) and root knot