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Asmita Paudel, Youping Sun, Larry A. Rupp, and Richard Anderson

Council of Holland 2001 RHS Colour Chart, London, UK Rupp, L.A. Wheaton, A. 2014 Nurturing native plants: A guide to vegetative propagation of native woody plants in Utah. Paper 797. 23 Mar. 2020. < https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/extension_curall/797

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J.C. Vlahos and P. Ververidis

Lupinus albus ssp. graecus, L. Fabaceae (Boiss. and Spruner) Franco and P.Silva, is being studied at the TEI of Heraklion since 1998 as a new plant with potential use in floriculture and ornamental horticulture. The plant has been recorded botanically; however, little is known about its physiology and genetic profile. Lupinus albus ssp. is a herbaceous annual plant 10 to 20 cm tall, growing at roadsides, field margins, vineyards, and olive groves up to 700 m altitude. The leaves are 5 to 11 cm wide, palmate shaped in alternate orientation, with five to nine leaflets 10 to 18 mm wide, all arising from the same point. The flowers are borne in terminal or lateral spike-like racemes 10 to 20 cm long. Florets are 15 mm long, dark blue occasionally with a white patch, stamens forming a tube. Pods are 60 to 70 mm long,with four to six black-spotted seeds. In the present work, seed germination studies were conducted combining chilling pretreatments with physical scarification (scratching). Mature seeds chilled at 5 °C for 6 weeks germinated readily (83%) when scarified with sand paper. Furthermore, we tested the effects of several plant growth regulators (chlorocholine chloride, paclobutrazol, maleic hydrazide and Ethrel 48) on young plants of Lupinus in order to obtain compact pot plants with more flowering racemes. Paclobutrazol at 5 and 10 mg/L achieved the best retardation effect, but did not affect flowering. In another trial with different potting media,the commercial potting soil proved the most suitable for growing lupins satisfactorily. It is concluded that Lupinus albus spp. graecus L. need further investigation in order to establish the best cultural conditions for its growth and development. Furthermore, due to its high genetic variability, selection and genetic improvement is required for optimal results.

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Alison M. Fox, Doria R. Gordon, and Randall K. Stocker

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Julia L. Bohnen and Anne M. Hanchek

The Legislative Commission on Minnesota's Resources funded a two year research project to promote expansion of the native wildflower and grass seed industry in Minnesota. Production of seeds and plants for landscaping and restoration is a growing sector of the horticultural industry, yet documentation of production techniques is sketchy due in part to the large number of species. The species Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily), Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox), and Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass) were selected for further analysis of germination requirements. These species were noted by producers as having poor and/or unreliable germination. Cold moist stratification and gibberellic acid (GA) treatments were applied Total percent germination and mean days to germination were calculated and analyzed after 30 days under greenhouse growing conditions. Stratification improved total percent and mean days to germination in L. philadelphicum. P. pilosa responded to treatment by both stratification and GA. Four weeks of stratification may be the best method for decreasing mean days to germination while obtaining adequate total percent germination for S. pectinata.

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Masud A. Khan and James N. McCrimmon

The multiple use of water from aquaculture to supplement irrigated crop production could minimize the cost of growing fish and irrigating crops. Aquaculture effluent was utilized to supplement the fertility and irrigation of six native shrub species (big sage, fourwing saltbush, mountain mahogany, Mormon tea, rubber rabbitbrush, and winterfat). Plants were established in two container types: 20-liter standard polypot and nonwoven UV-stabilized Duon synthetic fiber growbags. The plants were irrigated with fish effluent or city water. Plants irrigated with fish effluent were not given any fertilizer treatment, while plants irrigated with city water were fertilized with Osmocote®. Fish effluent was suitable for production of fourwing saltbush, rubber rabbitbrush, big sage, and winterfat. Fourwing saltbush irrigated with effluent had the best survival rate, while mountain mahogany irrigated with effluent had the poorest growth and survival rates. Big sage, rubber rabbitbrush, and winterfat had better growth and survival rates in the growbags, while Mormon tea had better growth and survival rate in the polypot containers.

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Sandra A. Balch, Victor Hegemann, and Susan P. Metz

Salvia (Lamiaceae) Pan-Pac. Entomol. 79 66 70 Nokes, J. 1986 How to grow native plants of Texas and the Southwest 315 316 Texas Monthly Press, Inc Austin, TX Royal Horticulture Society 2001 RHS colour

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Amber Bates, Kaylee Decker, and Ursula K. Schuch

, efforts have been focused to identify minimal inputs needed to maintain this native plant in an urban landscape. ‘Raider Gold’ is a new plains zinnia cultivar release from Texas Tech University. ‘Raider Gold’ is intended for use in demanding landscape

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Philip J. Kauth and Hector E. Pérez

.52 billion ( Hodges, 2011 ). With support from the federal government, state agencies, and private organizations, the use of native plants has been a growing segment in the horticulture industry ( Executive Order 13112, 1999 ; National Wildlife Federation

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Jacob A. Griffith Gardner, Jessica D. Lubell, and Mark H. Brand

Comptonia peregrina is a desirable native ornamental plant for challenging landscapes, but it cannot be produced using conventional softwood stem cuttings. We demonstrate that C. peregrina can be successfully propagated using young shoots (6 to 8 cm in length) recently emerged from rhizomes taken as cuttings. Although significantly more cuttings rooted using intermittent mist (99%) than propagation dome (70%), cuttings under propagation domes had greater shoot counts. Due to the drier and warmer conditions under propagation domes, cutting shoot tips were killed, which relieved apical dominance and stimulated lateral budbreak. Cuttings rooted under propagation domes produced plants having greater height, width, and size after 90 d than cuttings rooted under intermittent mist. Treatment of cuttings with talc-based rooting hormone at 3000 and 8000 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly improved rooting percentage and shoot count over untreated cuttings. Cuttings treated with 8000 ppm IBA produced the most roots. Container plants grown from cuttings and pruned to 7 cm in height produced twice as many shoots as unpruned plants. Using cuttings taken from young shoots (6 to 8 cm) produced from rhizomes, 3000 or 8000 ppm IBA, and intermittent mist nursery growers can achieve rooting percentages for C. peregrina above the 80% benchmark preferred for commercial plant production.

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Sandra A. Balch, and Dick L. Auld