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Brian K. Maynard and Nina L. Bassuk

New shoot growth of Carpinus betulus L. fastigiata was subjected to stock plant etiolation and stem banding (a 2.5-cm square of Velcro applied to the shoot base) treatments and sampled for histological study at intervals over a 16-week period of shoot development following etiolation. Effects of partial shading on histology of the stem were also investigated. Numerous histological changes were noted with stem development and stock plant treatment. Among these were a reduction in lignification of the secondary xylem and thickness of the periderm, and an increase in the percentage of sclereid-free gaps in the perivascular sclerenchyma with etiolation. Concomitant propagation studies revealed significant etiolation, shading, and banding effects on rooting percentages and root numbers. Rooting capacity was modelled using linear combinations of the widths of nonlignified secondary xylem, cortical parenchyma and periderm, as well as the percentage of gaps in the sclerenchymatic sheath remaining free of sclereids. It is proposed that the development of sclereids in potential rooting sites reduces rooting potential. The exclusion of light during initial shoot development retards sclereid development by up to 3 months following treatment, which correlates well with observed increases in the rooting potential of etiolated stems.

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Shugang Zhao, Jiamin Niu, Linying Yun, Kai Liu, Shuang Wang, Jing Wen, Hongxia Wang, and ZhiHua Zhang

lignification and moderately increased in size ( E–I ). The endocarp consisted of three parts from the outside in L1, L2, and L3 ( J ). The development of parenchymal cells between the husk and endocarp (1–6). h = husk; e = endocarp; v = vascular bundle; s

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Olfa Zarrouk, Pilar S. Testillano, María Carmen Risueño, María Ángeles Moreno, and Yolanda Gogorcena

of the newly formed cambium causes an invagination of the cambial zone, a differentiation of parenchymatous tissue in the place of xylem ( Deloire and Hébant, 1983 ; Gur et al., 1968 ), and a lack of lignification of cells interlocked at the graft

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M. Lenny Wells and Bruce W. Wood

trace micronutrients that link either indirectly or directly to lignification [manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni)]. Because xylem connections to developing fruit either are absent or poorly formed, their availability to

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Derek W. Barchenger, Danise L. Coon, and Paul W. Bosland

was observed that after day 8 of treatment, the abscission zone was darkened ( Fig. 3 ); illustrating what is likely cell suberization or lignification as the result of flower bud, flower, and fruit drop. Suberization or lignification is a major part

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Tao Wu and Jiashu Cao

Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) have many physiological roles in several primary and secondary metabolic processes, such as scavenging of peroxide, participation in lignification, regulation of cell growth and differentiation, hormonal signaling, plant

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Qing Xu, Shi-Rong Guo, He Li, Nan-Shan Du, Sheng Shu, and Jin Sun

for graft stress. This was also true for the phenylpropanoid substances ( Pereira et al., 2014 ). Many studies have suggested that certain antioxidases play roles in the xylem lignification of the newly differentiating vascular system after the graft

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Wen-hui Li, Jian-rong Feng, Shi-kui Zhang, and Zhang-hu Tang

% to 30% in mature stone cells, its formation is considered to involve lignification. Several studies have suggested that lignin plays an important role not only in cell wall thickening but also in stone cell formation ( Crist and Batjer, 1931

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Joongmin Shin, Bruce Harte, Janice Harte, and Kirk Dolan

lignification and toughness ( An et al., 2007 ; Powers and Drake, 2006 ; Waldron and Selvendran, 1990 ). Therefore, some studies showed that PAL response is closely correlated to decreased shelf life and visual quality of asparagus ( Hennion et al., 1992

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Manasikan Thammawong, Daisuke Nei, Poritosh Roy, Nobutaka Nakamura, Takeo Shiina, Yuuichi Inoue, Hidenobu Hamachi, and Shigeyuki Nonaka

respiration of the cell. Postharvest deterioration and changing in cellular components, including discoloration, browning, lignification, and increased PAL activity, were also observed in bamboo shoots stored at relatively high temperature ( Chen et al., 1989