`Fuji', `Gala' and `Jonagold' apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.) from either regular-atmosphere (RA) or controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage can be fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) with minimal effects on fruit quality. Some quality loss, particularly in internal color, was possible at 48 and 56 g·m−3 MeBr doses for `Fuji', `Gala', and `Jonagold' apples from CA storage. `Braeburn' apples from either RA or CA storage were not good candidates for MeBr fumigation, particularly at 10 °C. Observed internal damage indicated that `Braeburn' apples from RA or CA cannot be fumigated with MeBr. Apples with watercore displayed increased internal breakdown after fumigation with MeBr. Regardless of cultivar, only apples of superior quality could tolerate the stress of MeBr fumigation.
S.R. Drake and H.R. Moffitt
Stephen R. Drake
`Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis L.) were placed in controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage immediately after harvest (<24 hours) or after a 10-day delay in refrigerated storage, and held there for 9 months at 1C. Oxygen in all atmospheres was 1.5% and CO2 was at either 1% or 3%. Atmospheres in the flow-through system were computer-controlled at ±0.1%. After removal from CA storage, pears were evaluated immediately and after ripening at 21C for 8 days. Pears stored in 3% CO2 were firmer, greener, and displayed less scald, internal breakdown, and stem-end decay than pears stored in 1% CO2. In addition, no internal discoloration of `Anjou' pears was evident when held with 3% CO2. `Anjou' pears held in 3%. CO2 retained the ability to ripen after long-term storage. A 10-day delay in atmosphere establishment had little or no influence on the long-term keeping quality or ripening ability of `Anjou' pears.
Carlos H. Crisosto, R. Scott Johnson, Juvenal G. Luza, and Gayle M. Crisosto
connection reported herein is not to be construed as either an actual or implied endorsement of said products. We thank A.A. Kader and F.G. Mitchell for their technical assistance in the internal breakdown evaluation tests. The cost of publishing this paper
Dangyang Ke and Adel A. Kader
Fruits of peach (Prunus persica L., cv. `Fairtime') and plum (Prunus domestica L., cv. `Angeleno') were kept in air and in 0.25% or 0.02% O2 at 0, 5, or 10°C for 3 to 40 days to study the effects of temperatures and insecticidal low O2 atmospheres on their physiological responses and quality attributes. Exposure to low O2 atmospheres reduced respiration and ethylene production rates of the stone fruits. The low O2 treatments retarded color change and flesh softening of plums and maintained acidity of peaches. Exposure to the low O2 atmospheres also delayed incidence and reduced severity of internal breakdown (chilling injury) and decay of the peaches at 5°C and, therefore, maintained both external and internal appearance qualities of the fruits longer than those kept in air. The most important limiting factor for fruit tolerance to insecticidal low O2 atmospheres was development of alcoholic off-flavor which was associated with accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the fruits. The peaches and plums could tolerate exposures to the low O2 atmospheres for 9 to 40 days, depending on the temperature and O2 level used. These results suggest that stone fruits are quite tolerant to insecticidal low O2 atmospheres.
Frank J. Peryesa and Stephen R Drake
Fruit growers and shippers have suggested that excessive rates of boron (B) in foliar nutrient sprays may reduce quality of stored apples. Foliar B sprays were applied by handgun in mid-July to bearing apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Starking) at rates of 0, 11.3,22.6 g B/tree. Fruits of uniform size (220 g) were analyzed for B content at harvest and for quality indices at harvest, after 10 days ripening postharvest, after 3 months refrigerated air storage, and after 8 days ripening poststorage. Whole fruit B concentration was directly proportional to B application rate. At all sampling times fruit firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and internal and external color parameters were independent of whole fruit B concentration. Fruit disorders were unrelated to treatment except for internal breakdown after 8 months refrigerated air storage, which was positively related to whole fruit B concentration. Increases in fruit B were relatively greater in the core tissue, suggesting that some of the applied B entered the fruit through the tree vascular system.
S.R. Drake, D.C. Elfving, and T.A. Eisele
Quality of `Cripps Pink' apples (Malu × domestica) harvested at a starch index of 2 and 4 was evaluated over three crop seasons. Apple quality was evaluated after harvest and after regular atmosphere (RA) and controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage at 1% O2 and 1% CO2, 1% O2 and 3% CO2, and 1% O2 and 5% CO2 (1 year only) at 1 ºC (33 to 34 ºF). Over three seasons, commercially acceptable fruit quality was achieved on either harvest date following both long-term RA and CA storage. Fruit size was not different between apples harvested at a starch index of 2 or 4. Firmness and acids remained at acceptable levels [62 N (14 lb) and ≥0.50%, respectively] in `Cripps Pink' apples regardless of maturity, storage time or storage conditions. Delaying harvest after a starch index of 2 was achieved increased soluble solids concentration (SSC), SSC to TA (titratable acidity) ratio, peel color, malic acid and citric acid concentrations but decreased fructose content. `Cripps Pink' apples responded well to CA storage conditions of 1% O2 with 1% or 3% CO2, but displayed significant firmness loss and greatly increased internal breakdown at 1% O2 and 5% CO2 at 1 ºC.
William D. Wolk, O.L. Lau, G.H. Neilsen, and Brian G. Drought
A study was undertaken to identify key factors associated with storage disorders in three commercially important apple cultivars in British Columbia and to determine how early in the season associations could be measured. Fruit mass, density, and concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and dry matter were determined for `McIntosh', `Spartan', and `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh) from ≈30 commercial orchards 9, 6, 3, and 0 weeks before harvest. Storage samples were collected at commercial harvest and evaluated for the development of internal breakdown (`McIntosh' and `Spartan') or bitter pit (`Golden Delicious') after 4 and 6 months of 0 °C air storage. Mass and [Ca] and the mass/[Ca] and [K]/[Ca] ratios were the factors most often significantly correlated with storage disorders within each year for all three cultivars. Correlations were as frequently significant 6 and 3 weeks before harvest as they were at harvest. Mass of `McIntosh' and `Spartan' was the only variable consistently related with breakdown in all 3 years of the study. There were no variables with a consistent relationship to bitter pit in `Golden Delicious'. Fruit [Ca] was associated with the relative levels of disorders within years but could not be associated with specific levels of disorders across all years.
Andrés Olivos, Scott Johnson, Qin Xiaoqiong, and Carlos H. Crisosto
internal breakdown. Therefore, further research on the influence of preharvest manipulations such as mineral nutrition, irrigation, and cropload on stone fruit postharvest quality and cold storage performance is needed. Fruit tissue enzymatic browning is a
Richard L. Bell and Tom van der Zwet
‘Bartlett’. In air storage at –1 °C, fruit will store for as long as 111 d without superficial scald or internal breakdown. When harvested firm but optimally mature, the fruit will ripen without postharvest chilling, but 10 to 12 d at 20 °C were required to
Thomas Sotiropoulos, Georgios Syrgianidis, Nikolaos Koutinas, Antonios Petridis, and Dimitrios Almaliotis
which time internal breakdown tends to occur. Origin In Greece, the total pear production in 2007 was 75,249 t and acreage was 4,000 ha ( FAO, 2007 ). The main pear cultivars grown in Greece are ‘Kristali’ and ‘Williams’. ‘Kontoula’ summer cultivar